Following the Kinetics of Barium Titanate Nanocrystal Formation in Benzyl Alcohol Under Near-Ambient Conditions

Sjoerd A. Veldhuis (Corresponding Author), Tomasz M. Stawski, Pablo Gonzalez Rodriguez, Huiyu Yuan, Rogier Besselink, Liane G. Benning, Johan E. ten Elshof

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

In complex chemical syntheses (e.g., coprecipitation reactions), nucleation, growth, and coarsening often occur concurrently, obscuring the individual processes. Improved knowledge of these processes will help to better understand and optimize the reaction protocol. Here, a form-free and model independent approach, based on a combination of time-resolved small/wide-angle X-ray scattering, is employed to elucidate the effect of reaction parameters (such as precursor concentration, reactant stoichiometry, and temperature) on the nucleation, crystallization, and growth phenomena during the formation of nanocrystalline barium titanate. The strength of this approach is that it relies solely on the total scattered intensity (i.e., scattering invariant) of the investigated system, and no prior knowledge is required. As such, it can be widely applied to other synthesis protocols and material's systems. Through the scattering invariant, it is found that the amorphous-to-crystalline transformation of barium titanate is predominantly determined by the total amount of water released from the gel-like barium hydroxide octahydrate precursor, and three rate-limiting regimes are established. As a result of this improved understanding of the effect of varying reaction conditions, elementary boundary conditions can be set up for a better control of the barium titanate nanocrystal synthesis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1802003
Number of pages11
JournalSmall
Volume14
Issue number40
Early online date10 Sep 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 4 Oct 2018

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Benzyl Alcohol
Barium titanate
Barium
Nanoparticles
Nanocrystals
Alcohols
Kinetics
Nucleation
Scattering
Coarsening
Growth
Coprecipitation
Crystallization
X ray scattering
Stoichiometry
Gels
X-Rays
Boundary conditions
Crystalline materials
Temperature

Keywords

  • UT-Hybrid-D
  • perovskites
  • reaction kinetics
  • small angle X-ray scattering
  • sol–gel
  • model independent analysis

Cite this

Veldhuis, S. A., Stawski, T. M., Gonzalez Rodriguez, P., Yuan, H., Besselink, R., Benning, L. G., & ten Elshof, J. E. (2018). Following the Kinetics of Barium Titanate Nanocrystal Formation in Benzyl Alcohol Under Near-Ambient Conditions. Small, 14(40), [1802003]. https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.201802003
Veldhuis, Sjoerd A. ; Stawski, Tomasz M. ; Gonzalez Rodriguez, Pablo ; Yuan, Huiyu ; Besselink, Rogier ; Benning, Liane G. ; ten Elshof, Johan E. / Following the Kinetics of Barium Titanate Nanocrystal Formation in Benzyl Alcohol Under Near-Ambient Conditions. In: Small. 2018 ; Vol. 14, No. 40.
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Veldhuis, SA, Stawski, TM, Gonzalez Rodriguez, P, Yuan, H, Besselink, R, Benning, LG & ten Elshof, JE 2018, 'Following the Kinetics of Barium Titanate Nanocrystal Formation in Benzyl Alcohol Under Near-Ambient Conditions' Small, vol. 14, no. 40, 1802003. https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.201802003

Following the Kinetics of Barium Titanate Nanocrystal Formation in Benzyl Alcohol Under Near-Ambient Conditions. / Veldhuis, Sjoerd A. (Corresponding Author); Stawski, Tomasz M.; Gonzalez Rodriguez, Pablo; Yuan, Huiyu; Besselink, Rogier; Benning, Liane G.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

In: Small, Vol. 14, No. 40, 1802003, 04.10.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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AU - Veldhuis, Sjoerd A.

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AB - In complex chemical syntheses (e.g., coprecipitation reactions), nucleation, growth, and coarsening often occur concurrently, obscuring the individual processes. Improved knowledge of these processes will help to better understand and optimize the reaction protocol. Here, a form-free and model independent approach, based on a combination of time-resolved small/wide-angle X-ray scattering, is employed to elucidate the effect of reaction parameters (such as precursor concentration, reactant stoichiometry, and temperature) on the nucleation, crystallization, and growth phenomena during the formation of nanocrystalline barium titanate. The strength of this approach is that it relies solely on the total scattered intensity (i.e., scattering invariant) of the investigated system, and no prior knowledge is required. As such, it can be widely applied to other synthesis protocols and material's systems. Through the scattering invariant, it is found that the amorphous-to-crystalline transformation of barium titanate is predominantly determined by the total amount of water released from the gel-like barium hydroxide octahydrate precursor, and three rate-limiting regimes are established. As a result of this improved understanding of the effect of varying reaction conditions, elementary boundary conditions can be set up for a better control of the barium titanate nanocrystal synthesis.

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Veldhuis SA, Stawski TM, Gonzalez Rodriguez P, Yuan H, Besselink R, Benning LG et al. Following the Kinetics of Barium Titanate Nanocrystal Formation in Benzyl Alcohol Under Near-Ambient Conditions. Small. 2018 Oct 4;14(40). 1802003. https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.201802003