Formability Experiments for Unidirectional Thermoplastic Composites

D. Brands*, L. G. Di Genova, E. R. Pierik, W. J.B. Grouve, S. Wijskamp, R. Akkerman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
43 Downloads (Pure)


Reliable composite forming experiments are required to characterize composite formability, to aid material development, and to validate process simulations models. Due to practical reasons, however, typically a limited amount of forming configurations is studied. The objective of this study is, therefore, to develop a methodology for obtaining controlled forming results in a wide range of configurations. Press forming experiments using a dome geometry were used to explore the formability of two commercial unidirectional thermoplastic composite materials. A variety of forming configurations was employed by changing the blank dimensions and layup. The observation of wrinkling defects was simplified by leaving an additional 3 mm tool gap. Blank width and layup had the most influence on the wrinkling severity, followed by blank thickness and length. Quasi-isotropic layups were found to produce wrinkles in nearly all cases, confirming a difficulty in general to form double curved parts. The size and number of wrinkles in these layups were found to change with the stacking sequence. Cross-ply layups showed better formability, but significant wrinkles were still observed depending on the orientation of the blank relative to the layup. The formability experiments using a dome geometry provided a reliable methodology for controlled forming results in many configurations using a generic toolset. Additionally, a comprehensive comparison of formability for two commercial thermoplastic UD materials in a variety of scenarios was provided.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAchievements and Trends in Material Forming- Peer-reviewed extended papers selected from the 25th International Conference on Material Forming, ESAFORM 2022
EditorsGabriela Vincze, Frédéric Barlat
PublisherTrans Tech Publications Ltd
Number of pages14
ISBN (Print)9783035717594
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Event25th International Conference on Friction and Wear in Forming Processes, ESAFORM 2022: ESAFORM 2022, 25th International Conference on Material Forming - Altice Forum Braga, Braga, Portugal
Duration: 27 Apr 202229 Apr 2022
Conference number: 25

Publication series

NameKey Engineering Materials
Volume926 KEM
ISSN (Print)1013-9826
ISSN (Electronic)1662-9795


Seminar25th International Conference on Friction and Wear in Forming Processes, ESAFORM 2022
Abbreviated titleESAFORM 2022
Internet address


  • Carbon fiber
  • Composite forming
  • Formability
  • Thermoplastic
  • Unidirectional
  • Wrinkling


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