Formative assessment: A systematic review of critical teacher prerequisites for classroom practice

Kim Schildkamp*, Fabienne M. van der Kleij, Maaike C. Heitink, Wilma B. Kippers, Bernard P. Veldkamp

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

90 Citations (Scopus)
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Formative assessment has the potential to support teaching and learning in the classroom. This study reviewed the literature on formative assessment to identify prerequisites for effective use of formative assessment by teachers. The review sought to address the following research question: What teacher prerequisites need to be in place for using formative assessment in their classroom practice? The review was conducted using a systematic approach. A total of 54 studies were included in this review. The results show that (1) knowledge and skills (e.g., data literacy), (2), psychological factors (e.g., social pressure), and (3) social factors (e.g., collaboration) influence the use of formative assessment. The prerequisites identified can inform professional development initiatives regarding formative assessment, as well as teacher education programs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101602
JournalInternational journal of educational research
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2020


  • UT-Hybrid-D
  • Classroom practice
  • Data-based decision making
  • Formative assessment
  • Systematic review
  • Teacher prerequisites
  • Assessment for learning


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