Surface reactions were employed to introduce a variety of functional groups in self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on hydroxylated surfaces such as glass and oxidized silicon wafers. The resulting layers were fully characterized by wettability studies, ellipsometry, Brewster angle infrared and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-visible absorption and fluorescence measurements. Based on these measurements, it was concluded that the steric hindrance of the monolayer hampered the surface reactions, which generally led to sub-monolayer coverages. Detailed information concerning the interactions amongst adsorbates was obtained from fluorescence measurements. The characteristic excimer emission of pyrene-functionalized layers showed a large dependence on the solvent that was in contact with the SAM. Furthermore, efficient energy transfer could be observed in mixed monolayers that contained both fluorescein and lissamine groups.
Flink, S., van Veggel, F. C. J. M., & Reinhoudt, D. (2001). Functionalization of self-assembled monolayers on glass and oxidized silicon wafers by surface reactions. Journal of physical organic chemistry, 14(7), 407-415. https://doi.org/10.1002/poc.372