Future of operating rooms

Michel M.P.J. Reijnen*, Clark J. Zeebregts, Wilhelmus J.H.J. Meijerink

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


Operating-room design has not changed significantly since the modern era of surgery began. Minimal invasive, endoscopic, procedures, and evolution of technology will affect operating-room design in the near future. Poor ergonomics has always been one of the major drawbacks of endoscopic surgery. Use of retractable arms and monitors will improve ergonomics of the operating team. Developments in telecommunication will allow surgeons to communicate with colleagues and experts during the procedure in virtually any location around the world, which increases teaching possibilities and procedural safety. Introduction and further development of intraoperative imaging, including real-time, three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructions of patient, and computer-aided surgery offer surgeons the opportunity to train the planned surgical procedure. Moreover, they will improve control and supervision of the procedure in learning situations. The last decade's robotics have made their introduction into the operating rooms. They improve control over the operating-room environment and will facilitate the performance of more complex procedures. However, high costs and lack of force feedback remain its major drawbacks. Improvements of robotic techniques and its implementation into the operating rooms will further guide their design into highly specialized operating units.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21-27
Number of pages7
JournalSurgical technology international
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2005
Externally publishedYes


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