Gaze Behavior, Believability, Likability and the iCat

Antinus Nijholt (Editor), Mannes Poel, Dirk K.J. Heylen, O. Stock (Editor), T. Nishida (Editor), M. Meulemans, A. van Bremen

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    The iCat is a user-interface robot with the ability to express a range of emotions through its facial features. This paper summarizes our research whether we can increase the believability and likability of the iCat for its human partners through the application of gaze behaviour. Gaze behaviour serves several functions during social interaction such as mediating conversation flow, communicating emotional information and avoiding distraction by restricting visual input. There are several types of eye and head movements that are necessary for realizing these functions. We designed and evaluated a gaze behaviour system for the iCat robot that implements realistic models of the major types of eye and head movements found in living beings: vergence, vestibulo ocular reflexive, smooth pursuit movements and gaze shifts. We discuss how these models are integrated into the software environment of the iCat and can be used to create complex interaction scenarios. We report about some user tests and draw conclusions for future evaluation scenarios.
    Original languageUndefined
    Article number10.1007/s00146-009-0198-1
    Pages (from-to)61-73
    Number of pages13
    JournalAI & society
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2009


    • EWI-12174
    • METIS-263680
    • IR-64700
    • Believability
    • User-interface robot
    • Social gaze behaviour
    • iCat

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