Gaze Behavior, Believability, Likability and the iCat

Antinus Nijholt (Editor), Mannes Poel, Dirk K.J. Heylen, O. Stock (Editor), T. Nishida (Editor), M. Meulemans, A. van Bremen

  • 14 Citations

Abstract

The iCat is a user-interface robot with the ability to express a range of emotions through its facial features. This paper summarizes our research whether we can increase the believability and likability of the iCat for its human partners through the application of gaze behaviour. Gaze behaviour serves several functions during social interaction such as mediating conversation flow, communicating emotional information and avoiding distraction by restricting visual input. There are several types of eye and head movements that are necessary for realizing these functions. We designed and evaluated a gaze behaviour system for the iCat robot that implements realistic models of the major types of eye and head movements found in living beings: vergence, vestibulo ocular reflexive, smooth pursuit movements and gaze shifts. We discuss how these models are integrated into the software environment of the iCat and can be used to create complex interaction scenarios. We report about some user tests and draw conclusions for future evaluation scenarios.
Original languageUndefined
Article number10.1007/s00146-009-0198-1
Pages (from-to)61-73
Number of pages13
JournalAI & society
Volume24
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2009

Fingerprint

Robots
Scenarios
Eye movements
Head movement
Robot
User interfaces
Living beings
Interaction
Distraction
Evaluation
Social interaction
Pursuit
User interface
Software

Keywords

  • EWI-12174
  • HMI-MI: MULTIMODAL INTERACTIONS
  • METIS-263680
  • IR-64700
  • Believability
  • User-interface robot
  • Social gaze behaviour
  • iCat

Cite this

Nijholt, A. (Ed.), Poel, M., Heylen, D. K. J., Stock, O. (Ed.), Nishida, T. (Ed.), Meulemans, M., & van Bremen, A. (2009). Gaze Behavior, Believability, Likability and the iCat. AI & society, 24(1), 61-73. [10.1007/s00146-009-0198-1]. DOI: 10.1007/s00146-009-0198-1

Nijholt, Antinus (Editor); Poel, Mannes; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Stock, O. (Editor); Nishida, T. (Editor); Meulemans, M.; van Bremen, A. / Gaze Behavior, Believability, Likability and the iCat.

In: AI & society, Vol. 24, No. 1, 10.1007/s00146-009-0198-1, 01.08.2009, p. 61-73.

Research output: Scientific - peer-reviewArticle

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Nijholt, A (ed.), Poel, M, Heylen, DKJ, Stock, O (ed.), Nishida, T (ed.), Meulemans, M & van Bremen, A 2009, 'Gaze Behavior, Believability, Likability and the iCat' AI & society, vol 24, no. 1, 10.1007/s00146-009-0198-1, pp. 61-73. DOI: 10.1007/s00146-009-0198-1

Gaze Behavior, Believability, Likability and the iCat. / Nijholt, Antinus (Editor); Poel, Mannes; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Stock, O. (Editor); Nishida, T. (Editor); Meulemans, M.; van Bremen, A.

In: AI & society, Vol. 24, No. 1, 10.1007/s00146-009-0198-1, 01.08.2009, p. 61-73.

Research output: Scientific - peer-reviewArticle

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Nijholt A, (ed.), Poel M, Heylen DKJ, Stock O, (ed.), Nishida T, (ed.), Meulemans M et al. Gaze Behavior, Believability, Likability and the iCat. AI & society. 2009 Aug 1;24(1):61-73. 10.1007/s00146-009-0198-1. Available from, DOI: 10.1007/s00146-009-0198-1