Gaze patterns in pedestrian interaction with vehicles: Towards effective design of external human-machine interfaces for automated vehicles

Debargha Dey, Francesco Walker*, Marieke Martens, Jacques Terken

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

    3 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    In road-crossing situations involving negotiation with approaching vehicles, pedestrians need to take into account the behavior of the car before making a decision. To investigate the kind of information about the car that pedestrians seek, and the places where do they look for it, we conducted an eye-tracking study with 26 participants and analyzed the fixation behavior when interacting with a manually-driven vehicle that approached while slowing and displaying a yielding behavior. Results show that a clear pattern of gaze behavior exists for pedestrians in looking at a vehicle during road-crossing situations as a function of the vehicle’s distance. When the car is far away, pedestrians look at the environment or the road space ahead of the car. With the approach, the gaze gradually shifts to the windshield of the car. We conclude by discussing the implications of this insight in the user-centered-design of optimal external Human-Machine-Interfaces for automated vehicles.

    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationProceedings AutomotiveUI 19
    Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of the 11th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications
    PublisherACM Publishing
    Pages369-378
    Number of pages10
    ISBN (Print)978-1-4503-6884-1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 21 Sep 2019
    Event11th International ACM Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, AutomotiveUI 2019 - Utrecht, Netherlands
    Duration: 22 Sep 201925 Sep 2019

    Conference

    Conference11th International ACM Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, AutomotiveUI 2019
    Abbreviated titleAutomotiveUI 2019
    CountryNetherlands
    CityUtrecht
    Period22/09/1925/09/19

    Fingerprint

    Railroad cars
    Windshields

    Keywords

    • Eye-tracking
    • Pedestrian behavior
    • Real-world study
    • Vehicle-pedestrian interaction
    • Vulnerable road user (VRU)

    Cite this

    Dey, D., Walker, F., Martens, M., & Terken, J. (2019). Gaze patterns in pedestrian interaction with vehicles: Towards effective design of external human-machine interfaces for automated vehicles. In Proceedings AutomotiveUI 19: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications (pp. 369-378). ACM Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1145/3342197.3344523
    Dey, Debargha ; Walker, Francesco ; Martens, Marieke ; Terken, Jacques. / Gaze patterns in pedestrian interaction with vehicles : Towards effective design of external human-machine interfaces for automated vehicles. Proceedings AutomotiveUI 19: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications. ACM Publishing, 2019. pp. 369-378
    @inproceedings{00fc223332e7457096a2e1fe3839fe1f,
    title = "Gaze patterns in pedestrian interaction with vehicles: Towards effective design of external human-machine interfaces for automated vehicles",
    abstract = "In road-crossing situations involving negotiation with approaching vehicles, pedestrians need to take into account the behavior of the car before making a decision. To investigate the kind of information about the car that pedestrians seek, and the places where do they look for it, we conducted an eye-tracking study with 26 participants and analyzed the fixation behavior when interacting with a manually-driven vehicle that approached while slowing and displaying a yielding behavior. Results show that a clear pattern of gaze behavior exists for pedestrians in looking at a vehicle during road-crossing situations as a function of the vehicle’s distance. When the car is far away, pedestrians look at the environment or the road space ahead of the car. With the approach, the gaze gradually shifts to the windshield of the car. We conclude by discussing the implications of this insight in the user-centered-design of optimal external Human-Machine-Interfaces for automated vehicles.",
    keywords = "Eye-tracking, Pedestrian behavior, Real-world study, Vehicle-pedestrian interaction, Vulnerable road user (VRU)",
    author = "Debargha Dey and Francesco Walker and Marieke Martens and Jacques Terken",
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    Dey, D, Walker, F, Martens, M & Terken, J 2019, Gaze patterns in pedestrian interaction with vehicles: Towards effective design of external human-machine interfaces for automated vehicles. in Proceedings AutomotiveUI 19: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications. ACM Publishing, pp. 369-378, 11th International ACM Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, AutomotiveUI 2019, Utrecht, Netherlands, 22/09/19. https://doi.org/10.1145/3342197.3344523

    Gaze patterns in pedestrian interaction with vehicles : Towards effective design of external human-machine interfaces for automated vehicles. / Dey, Debargha; Walker, Francesco; Martens, Marieke; Terken, Jacques.

    Proceedings AutomotiveUI 19: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications. ACM Publishing, 2019. p. 369-378.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

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    AU - Walker, Francesco

    AU - Martens, Marieke

    AU - Terken, Jacques

    PY - 2019/9/21

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    N2 - In road-crossing situations involving negotiation with approaching vehicles, pedestrians need to take into account the behavior of the car before making a decision. To investigate the kind of information about the car that pedestrians seek, and the places where do they look for it, we conducted an eye-tracking study with 26 participants and analyzed the fixation behavior when interacting with a manually-driven vehicle that approached while slowing and displaying a yielding behavior. Results show that a clear pattern of gaze behavior exists for pedestrians in looking at a vehicle during road-crossing situations as a function of the vehicle’s distance. When the car is far away, pedestrians look at the environment or the road space ahead of the car. With the approach, the gaze gradually shifts to the windshield of the car. We conclude by discussing the implications of this insight in the user-centered-design of optimal external Human-Machine-Interfaces for automated vehicles.

    AB - In road-crossing situations involving negotiation with approaching vehicles, pedestrians need to take into account the behavior of the car before making a decision. To investigate the kind of information about the car that pedestrians seek, and the places where do they look for it, we conducted an eye-tracking study with 26 participants and analyzed the fixation behavior when interacting with a manually-driven vehicle that approached while slowing and displaying a yielding behavior. Results show that a clear pattern of gaze behavior exists for pedestrians in looking at a vehicle during road-crossing situations as a function of the vehicle’s distance. When the car is far away, pedestrians look at the environment or the road space ahead of the car. With the approach, the gaze gradually shifts to the windshield of the car. We conclude by discussing the implications of this insight in the user-centered-design of optimal external Human-Machine-Interfaces for automated vehicles.

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    KW - Vulnerable road user (VRU)

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    Dey D, Walker F, Martens M, Terken J. Gaze patterns in pedestrian interaction with vehicles: Towards effective design of external human-machine interfaces for automated vehicles. In Proceedings AutomotiveUI 19: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications. ACM Publishing. 2019. p. 369-378 https://doi.org/10.1145/3342197.3344523