This article presents an overview of the recent literature on gendered patterns of academic choice in mathematics, science, and technology. It distinguishes in this literature micro-level, macro-level, and institutional explanations. Micro-level explanations focus primarily on psychological constructs, that is, variables at the level of the individual students. Macro-level explanations focus primarily on socioeconomic conditions and cultural understandings of gender roles. Institutional explanations focus on design characteristics of (national) education systems. After a presentation of these perspectives and of recent research progress that has been made, the authors critically discuss the lacunae that still exist in explaining cross-national variety, and provide suggestions for designing future research in this field.
Yazilitas, D., Yazilitas, D., Svensson, J. S., de Vries, G., & Saharso, S. (2013). Gendered study choice: a literature review. A review of theory and research into the unequal representation of male and female students in mathematics, science, and technology. Educational research and evaluation, 19(6), 525-545. https://doi.org/10.1080/13803611.2013.803931