Generalized pain hypersensitivity and associated factors in gout

Peter M ten Klooster*, Jannis T Kraiss, Rik Munters, Harald E Vonkeman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
27 Downloads (Pure)


Previous studies have indicated that a sizeable proportion of patients with inflammatory arthritis present with features characteristic of central pain sensitization. However, this has not yet been examined in patients with gout. The objective of this study was to explore the presence of generalized pain hypersensitivity and associated factors in patients with diagnosed gout.

A cross-sectional survey was performed in outpatients with crystal proven gout using the generalized pain questionnaire (GPQ) to screen for the presence of generalized pain hypersensitivity. Additional self-reported socio-demographic and medical information was collected and several patient-reported outcome measures were completed. Univariable logistic regressions and multivariable LASSO regression analysis with 10-fold cross-validation was used to explore relationships with patient characteristics, clinical features and PROMs.

Of the 97 included patients (84.5% male; mean ± standard deviation age: 68.9 ± 11.9 years), 20 patients (20.6%, 95% CI: 13.0–30.0) reported possible generalized pain hypersensitivity defined as a GPQ score ≥11 (range: 0–28; mean ± standard deviation GPQ: 6.3 ± 5.3). Lower age, concomitant fibromyalgia, and more experienced difficulties in performing their social role were independently associated with generalized pain hypersensitivity. Notably, use of urate lowering therapy was significantly lower in those with generalized pain hypersensitivity.

Generalized pain hypersensitivity appears to be quite common in gout, despite its more intermittent nature compared with other inflammatory arthritides. As this kind of pain does not respond well to regular treatment, screening for non-inflammatory pain may be important for improving pain management in gout.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3640-3646
Issue number9
Early online date17 Dec 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2022


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