Prescription of clozapine is complicated by the occurrence of clozapine-induced reduction of neutrophils. The aim of this study was to identify genetic risk factors in a population of 310 Dutch patients treated with clozapine, including 38 patients developing neutropenia and 31 patients developing agranulocytosis. NQO2 1541AA (NRH quinone oxidoreductase 2; protects cells against oxidative metabolites) was present at a higher frequency in agranulocytosis patients compared with control (23% versus 7%, P=0.03), as was ABCB1 (ABC-Transporter-B1; drug efflux transporter) 3435TT (32% versus 20%, P=0.05). In patients developing neutropenia, ABCB1 3435TT and homozygosity for GSTT1 null (glutathione-S-Transferase; conjugates reactive clozapine metabolites into glutathione) were more frequent compared with control (34% versus 20%, P=0.05 and 31% versus 14%, P=0.03), whereas GSTM1 null was less frequent in these patients (31% versus 52%, P=0.03). To investigate whether combinations of the identified genetic risk factors have a higher predictive value, should be confirmed in a larger case-control study.