Germanene: the germanium analogue of graphene

Adil Acun, Lijie Zhang, Pantelis Bampoulis, M. Farmanbar Gelepordsari, Arie van Houselt, A.N. Rudenko, M. Lingenfelder, Gerardus H.L.A. Brocks, Bene Poelsema, M.I. Katsnelson, Henricus J.W. Zandvliet

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Abstract

Recently, several research groups have reported the growth of germanene, a new member of the graphene family. Germanene is in many aspects very similar to graphene, but in contrast to the planar graphene lattice, the germanene honeycomb lattice is buckled and composed of two vertically displaced sub-lattices. Density functional theory calculations have revealed that free-standing germanene is a 2D Dirac fermion system, i.e. the electrons behave as massless relativistic particles that are described by the Dirac equation, which is the relativistic variant of the Schrödinger equation. Germanene is a very appealing 2D material. The spin-orbit gap in germanene (~24 meV) is much larger than in graphene (<0.05 meV), which makes germanene the ideal candidate to exhibit the quantum spin Hall effect at experimentally accessible temperatures. Additionally, the germanene lattice offers the possibility to open a band gap via for instance an externally applied electrical field, adsorption of foreign atoms or coupling with a substrate. This opening of the band gap paves the way to the realization of germanene based field-effect devices. In this topical review we will (1) address the various methods to synthesize germanene (2) provide a brief overview of the key results that have been obtained by density functional theory calculations and (3) discuss the potential of germanene for future applications as well for fundamentally oriented studies.
Original languageEnglish
Article number443002
Pages (from-to)-
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of physics: Condensed matter
Volume27
Issue number44
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

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Germanium
Graphite
Graphene
germanium
graphene
analogs
Density functional theory
Energy gap
Spin Hall effect
density functional theory
Quantum Hall effect
Fermions
relativistic particles
Dirac equation
Hall effect
Orbits
fermions
orbits
Adsorption
Atoms

Keywords

  • IR-99805
  • METIS-312947

Cite this

Acun, Adil ; Zhang, Lijie ; Bampoulis, Pantelis ; Farmanbar Gelepordsari, M. ; van Houselt, Arie ; Rudenko, A.N. ; Lingenfelder, M. ; Brocks, Gerardus H.L.A. ; Poelsema, Bene ; Katsnelson, M.I. ; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W. / Germanene: the germanium analogue of graphene. In: Journal of physics: Condensed matter. 2015 ; Vol. 27, No. 44. pp. -.
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abstract = "Recently, several research groups have reported the growth of germanene, a new member of the graphene family. Germanene is in many aspects very similar to graphene, but in contrast to the planar graphene lattice, the germanene honeycomb lattice is buckled and composed of two vertically displaced sub-lattices. Density functional theory calculations have revealed that free-standing germanene is a 2D Dirac fermion system, i.e. the electrons behave as massless relativistic particles that are described by the Dirac equation, which is the relativistic variant of the Schr{\"o}dinger equation. Germanene is a very appealing 2D material. The spin-orbit gap in germanene (~24 meV) is much larger than in graphene (<0.05 meV), which makes germanene the ideal candidate to exhibit the quantum spin Hall effect at experimentally accessible temperatures. Additionally, the germanene lattice offers the possibility to open a band gap via for instance an externally applied electrical field, adsorption of foreign atoms or coupling with a substrate. This opening of the band gap paves the way to the realization of germanene based field-effect devices. In this topical review we will (1) address the various methods to synthesize germanene (2) provide a brief overview of the key results that have been obtained by density functional theory calculations and (3) discuss the potential of germanene for future applications as well for fundamentally oriented studies.",
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Acun, A, Zhang, L, Bampoulis, P, Farmanbar Gelepordsari, M, van Houselt, A, Rudenko, AN, Lingenfelder, M, Brocks, GHLA, Poelsema, B, Katsnelson, MI & Zandvliet, HJW 2015, 'Germanene: the germanium analogue of graphene' Journal of physics: Condensed matter, vol. 27, no. 44, 443002, pp. -. https://doi.org/10.1088/0953-8984/27/44/443002

Germanene: the germanium analogue of graphene. / Acun, Adil; Zhang, Lijie; Bampoulis, Pantelis; Farmanbar Gelepordsari, M.; van Houselt, Arie; Rudenko, A.N.; Lingenfelder, M.; Brocks, Gerardus H.L.A.; Poelsema, Bene; Katsnelson, M.I.; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

In: Journal of physics: Condensed matter, Vol. 27, No. 44, 443002, 2015, p. -.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Germanene: the germanium analogue of graphene

AU - Acun, Adil

AU - Zhang, Lijie

AU - Bampoulis, Pantelis

AU - Farmanbar Gelepordsari, M.

AU - van Houselt, Arie

AU - Rudenko, A.N.

AU - Lingenfelder, M.

AU - Brocks, Gerardus H.L.A.

AU - Poelsema, Bene

AU - Katsnelson, M.I.

AU - Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

N1 - Open access

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Recently, several research groups have reported the growth of germanene, a new member of the graphene family. Germanene is in many aspects very similar to graphene, but in contrast to the planar graphene lattice, the germanene honeycomb lattice is buckled and composed of two vertically displaced sub-lattices. Density functional theory calculations have revealed that free-standing germanene is a 2D Dirac fermion system, i.e. the electrons behave as massless relativistic particles that are described by the Dirac equation, which is the relativistic variant of the Schrödinger equation. Germanene is a very appealing 2D material. The spin-orbit gap in germanene (~24 meV) is much larger than in graphene (<0.05 meV), which makes germanene the ideal candidate to exhibit the quantum spin Hall effect at experimentally accessible temperatures. Additionally, the germanene lattice offers the possibility to open a band gap via for instance an externally applied electrical field, adsorption of foreign atoms or coupling with a substrate. This opening of the band gap paves the way to the realization of germanene based field-effect devices. In this topical review we will (1) address the various methods to synthesize germanene (2) provide a brief overview of the key results that have been obtained by density functional theory calculations and (3) discuss the potential of germanene for future applications as well for fundamentally oriented studies.

AB - Recently, several research groups have reported the growth of germanene, a new member of the graphene family. Germanene is in many aspects very similar to graphene, but in contrast to the planar graphene lattice, the germanene honeycomb lattice is buckled and composed of two vertically displaced sub-lattices. Density functional theory calculations have revealed that free-standing germanene is a 2D Dirac fermion system, i.e. the electrons behave as massless relativistic particles that are described by the Dirac equation, which is the relativistic variant of the Schrödinger equation. Germanene is a very appealing 2D material. The spin-orbit gap in germanene (~24 meV) is much larger than in graphene (<0.05 meV), which makes germanene the ideal candidate to exhibit the quantum spin Hall effect at experimentally accessible temperatures. Additionally, the germanene lattice offers the possibility to open a band gap via for instance an externally applied electrical field, adsorption of foreign atoms or coupling with a substrate. This opening of the band gap paves the way to the realization of germanene based field-effect devices. In this topical review we will (1) address the various methods to synthesize germanene (2) provide a brief overview of the key results that have been obtained by density functional theory calculations and (3) discuss the potential of germanene for future applications as well for fundamentally oriented studies.

KW - IR-99805

KW - METIS-312947

U2 - 10.1088/0953-8984/27/44/443002

DO - 10.1088/0953-8984/27/44/443002

M3 - Article

VL - 27

SP - -

JO - Journal of physics: Condensed matter

JF - Journal of physics: Condensed matter

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