Getting to grips with exam fraud: a qualitative study towards developing an evidence based educational data forensics protocol

Christiaan J. van Ommering*, Sebastiaan de Klerk, Bernard P. Veldkamp

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

This design research was focused on developing standards covering the entire process of examination to limit the chances of security risks (e.g., the prevention of exam fraud as much as possible, and detection by means of data forensics), together these standards form the Educational Data Forensics Protocol. Two research questions guided this study. The first question was, which standards regarding preventing and detecting fraud in the process of examination need to be included into the EDF protocol? In addition, practitioners must be able to act on indications of exam fraud based on these standards. Therefore, a second research question was formulated, namely which conditions must be considered during development of the EDF protocol to support practitioners in detecting possible gaps in the security of their examination process? The EDF protocol was developed and validated in five consecutive steps. This study analyses on the theoretical base of developing the EDF protocol (Step 1) and the considerations for developing a prototype (Step 2). The prototype was being validated (e.g., establishing correctness of the content) through seven semi-structured interviews with content experts in the field of either test security or data forensics (Step 3). Statements from these interviews were used to adjust the prototype into a final version of the EDF protocol (Step 4). Finally, to determine the practical value, the final version of the EDF protocol was used to flag gaps in the security of the exam process and determine possible security risks for one of eX:plain’ s exam programs (Step 5).

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTechnology Enhanced Assessment
Subtitle of host publication21st International Conference, TEA 2018, Revised Selected Papers
EditorsSilvester Draaijer, Desirée Joosten-ten Brinke, Eric Ras
PublisherSpringer Verlag
Pages199-218
Number of pages20
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-030-25264-9
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-25263-2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 13 Jul 2019
Event21st International Conference on Technology Enhanced Assessment, TEA 2018 - Amsterdam, Netherlands
Duration: 10 Dec 201811 Dec 2018
Conference number: 21

Publication series

NameCommunications in Computer and Information Science
Volume1014
ISSN (Print)1865-0929

Conference

Conference21st International Conference on Technology Enhanced Assessment, TEA 2018
Abbreviated titleTEA 2018
CountryNetherlands
CityAmsterdam
Period10/12/1811/12/18

Keywords

  • Academic integrity
  • Data forensics
  • Exam fraud
  • Test security

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    van Ommering, C. J., de Klerk, S., & Veldkamp, B. P. (2019). Getting to grips with exam fraud: a qualitative study towards developing an evidence based educational data forensics protocol. In S. Draaijer, D. Joosten-ten Brinke, & E. Ras (Eds.), Technology Enhanced Assessment : 21st International Conference, TEA 2018, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 199-218). (Communications in Computer and Information Science; Vol. 1014). Springer Verlag. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-25264-9_13