Glass-fiber self-mixing intra-arterial laser Doppler velocimetry: signal stability and feedback analysis

F.F.M. de Mul, Lorenzo Scalise, Anna Petoukhova, Marc van Herwijnen, Paul Moes, Wiendelt Steenbergen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We have developed a blood velocimeter based on the principle of self-mixing in a semiconductor laser diode through an optical fiber. The intensity of the light is modulated by feedback from moving scattering particles that contain the Doppler-shift frequency. Upon feedback the characteristics of the laser diode change. The threshold current decreases, and an instable region may become present above the new threshold. The amplitude of the Doppler signal turns out to be related to the difference in intensity between situations with and without feedback. This amplitude is highest just above feedback. The suppression of reflection from the glass-fiber facets is of paramount importance in the obtaining of a higher signal-to-noise ratio. Using an optical stabilization of the feedback, we optimized the performance of the laser-fiber system and the Doppler modulation depth and clarified its behavior with a suitable physical model. We also investigated the effect of the finite coherence length of the laser. We tested the efficiency of the self-mixing velocimeter in vivo with the optical glass fiber inserted in the artery with endoscopic catheters, both in upstream and in downstream blood flow conditions. For the latter we used a special side-reflecting device solution for the fiber facet to allow downstream measurements.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)658-667
Number of pages10
JournalApplied Optics
Volume41
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2002

Fingerprint

glass fibers
Velocity measurement
Glass fibers
Feedback
Lasers
Semiconductor lasers
Velocimeters
semiconductor lasers
lasers
Optical fibers
flat surfaces
Blood
optical fibers
Optical glass
Catheters
Doppler effect
blood flow
Fiber lasers
arteries
threshold currents

Keywords

  • METIS-204371
  • IR-96461

Cite this

de Mul, F.F.M. ; Scalise, Lorenzo ; Petoukhova, Anna ; van Herwijnen, Marc ; Moes, Paul ; Steenbergen, Wiendelt. / Glass-fiber self-mixing intra-arterial laser Doppler velocimetry: signal stability and feedback analysis. In: Applied Optics. 2002 ; Vol. 41, No. 4. pp. 658-667.
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abstract = "We have developed a blood velocimeter based on the principle of self-mixing in a semiconductor laser diode through an optical fiber. The intensity of the light is modulated by feedback from moving scattering particles that contain the Doppler-shift frequency. Upon feedback the characteristics of the laser diode change. The threshold current decreases, and an instable region may become present above the new threshold. The amplitude of the Doppler signal turns out to be related to the difference in intensity between situations with and without feedback. This amplitude is highest just above feedback. The suppression of reflection from the glass-fiber facets is of paramount importance in the obtaining of a higher signal-to-noise ratio. Using an optical stabilization of the feedback, we optimized the performance of the laser-fiber system and the Doppler modulation depth and clarified its behavior with a suitable physical model. We also investigated the effect of the finite coherence length of the laser. We tested the efficiency of the self-mixing velocimeter in vivo with the optical glass fiber inserted in the artery with endoscopic catheters, both in upstream and in downstream blood flow conditions. For the latter we used a special side-reflecting device solution for the fiber facet to allow downstream measurements.",
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Glass-fiber self-mixing intra-arterial laser Doppler velocimetry: signal stability and feedback analysis. / de Mul, F.F.M.; Scalise, Lorenzo; Petoukhova, Anna; van Herwijnen, Marc; Moes, Paul; Steenbergen, Wiendelt.

In: Applied Optics, Vol. 41, No. 4, 2002, p. 658-667.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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T1 - Glass-fiber self-mixing intra-arterial laser Doppler velocimetry: signal stability and feedback analysis

AU - de Mul, F.F.M.

AU - Scalise, Lorenzo

AU - Petoukhova, Anna

AU - van Herwijnen, Marc

AU - Moes, Paul

AU - Steenbergen, Wiendelt

PY - 2002

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N2 - We have developed a blood velocimeter based on the principle of self-mixing in a semiconductor laser diode through an optical fiber. The intensity of the light is modulated by feedback from moving scattering particles that contain the Doppler-shift frequency. Upon feedback the characteristics of the laser diode change. The threshold current decreases, and an instable region may become present above the new threshold. The amplitude of the Doppler signal turns out to be related to the difference in intensity between situations with and without feedback. This amplitude is highest just above feedback. The suppression of reflection from the glass-fiber facets is of paramount importance in the obtaining of a higher signal-to-noise ratio. Using an optical stabilization of the feedback, we optimized the performance of the laser-fiber system and the Doppler modulation depth and clarified its behavior with a suitable physical model. We also investigated the effect of the finite coherence length of the laser. We tested the efficiency of the self-mixing velocimeter in vivo with the optical glass fiber inserted in the artery with endoscopic catheters, both in upstream and in downstream blood flow conditions. For the latter we used a special side-reflecting device solution for the fiber facet to allow downstream measurements.

AB - We have developed a blood velocimeter based on the principle of self-mixing in a semiconductor laser diode through an optical fiber. The intensity of the light is modulated by feedback from moving scattering particles that contain the Doppler-shift frequency. Upon feedback the characteristics of the laser diode change. The threshold current decreases, and an instable region may become present above the new threshold. The amplitude of the Doppler signal turns out to be related to the difference in intensity between situations with and without feedback. This amplitude is highest just above feedback. The suppression of reflection from the glass-fiber facets is of paramount importance in the obtaining of a higher signal-to-noise ratio. Using an optical stabilization of the feedback, we optimized the performance of the laser-fiber system and the Doppler modulation depth and clarified its behavior with a suitable physical model. We also investigated the effect of the finite coherence length of the laser. We tested the efficiency of the self-mixing velocimeter in vivo with the optical glass fiber inserted in the artery with endoscopic catheters, both in upstream and in downstream blood flow conditions. For the latter we used a special side-reflecting device solution for the fiber facet to allow downstream measurements.

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