Gold nanocrystal labeling allows low-density lipoprotein imaging from the subcellular to macroscopic level

Iris Eva Allijn, W. Leong, J. Tang, A. Gianella, A.J. Mieszawska, F. Fay, G. Ma, S. Russell, C.B. Callo, R.E. Gordon, E. Korkmaz, J.A. Post, Yihming Zhao, H. Gerritsen, Gerrit Storm, A. Thran, R. Proksa, H. Daerr, V. Fuster, E.A. FisherZ.A. Fayad, W.J.M. Mulder, D.P. Cormode

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

73 Citations (Scopus)
2 Downloads (Pure)


Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a critical role in cholesterol transport and is closely linked to the progression of several diseases. This motivates the development of methods to study LDL behavior from the microscopic to whole-body level. We have developed an approach to efficiently load LDL with a range of diagnostically active nanocrystals or hydrophobic agents. We performed focused experiments on LDL labeled with gold nanocrystals (Au-LDL). The labeling procedure had minimal effect on LDL size, morphology, or composition. Biological function was found to be maintained from both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Tumor-bearing mice were injected intravenously with LDL, DiR-LDL, Au-LDL, or a gold-loaded nanoemulsion. LDL accumulation in the tumors was detected with whole-body imaging methods, such as computed tomography (CT), spectral CT, and fluorescence imaging. Cellular localization was studied with transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence techniques. This LDL labeling procedure should permit the study of lipoprotein biointeractions in unprecedented detail
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)9761-9670
JournalACS nano
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • IR-90160
  • METIS-301797

Cite this