Graded structures by multi-material mixing in laser powder bed fusion

Wessel W. Wits*, Emiel Amsterdam

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


Multi-material mixing in laser powder bed fusion is demonstrated by fabricating functionally graded structures in which Inconel and stainless steel are metallurgically bonded. Material mixing and elemental diffusion in the transition zone are studied for single scan tracks, hatch scans and multi-layer builds. An adapted recoater enabling powder deposition from multiple sources was utilized to fabricate a more gradual transition zone by alternating material deposition within the build. Homogenization heat treatment enhances elemental diffusion compared to the as-built configuration resulting in a gradual material transition without a distinct interface. Finally, a multi-material heat exchanger is presented as exemplary design implementation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)159-162
Number of pages4
JournalCIRP Annals
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 12 Apr 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Material mixing
  • Selective Laser Melting (SLM)


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