Graphene Visualizes the Ion Distribution on Air-Cleaved mica

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)
43 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

The distribution of potassium (K+) ions on air-cleaved mica is important in many interfacial phenomena such as crystal growth, self-assembly and charge transfer on mica. However, due to experimental limitations to nondestructively probe single ions and ionic domains, their exact lateral organization is yet unknown. We show, by the use of graphene as an ultra-thin protective coating and scanning probe microscopies, that single potassium ions form ordered structures that are covered by an ice layer. The K+ ions prefer to minimize the number of nearest neighbour K+ ions by forming row-like structures as well as small domains. This trend is a result of repulsive ionic forces between adjacent ions, weakened due to screening by the surrounding water molecules. Using high resolution conductive atomic force microscopy maps, the local conductance of the graphene is measured, revealing a direct correlation between the K+ distribution and the structure of the ice layer. Our results shed light on the local distribution of ions on the air-cleaved mica, solving a long-standing enigma. They also provide a detailed understanding of charge transfer from the ionic domains towards graphene.
Original languageEnglish
Article number43451
JournalScientific reports
Volume7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Fingerprint

Graphite
Ions
Air
Ice
Charge transfer
Potassium
Scanning probe microscopy
Protective coatings
Crystallization
mica
Self assembly
Atomic force microscopy
Screening
Molecules
Water

Keywords

  • METIS-322057
  • IR-104627

Cite this

@article{c437f1d33dab4f9ba1e5a194a745dc60,
title = "Graphene Visualizes the Ion Distribution on Air-Cleaved mica",
abstract = "The distribution of potassium (K+) ions on air-cleaved mica is important in many interfacial phenomena such as crystal growth, self-assembly and charge transfer on mica. However, due to experimental limitations to nondestructively probe single ions and ionic domains, their exact lateral organization is yet unknown. We show, by the use of graphene as an ultra-thin protective coating and scanning probe microscopies, that single potassium ions form ordered structures that are covered by an ice layer. The K+ ions prefer to minimize the number of nearest neighbour K+ ions by forming row-like structures as well as small domains. This trend is a result of repulsive ionic forces between adjacent ions, weakened due to screening by the surrounding water molecules. Using high resolution conductive atomic force microscopy maps, the local conductance of the graphene is measured, revealing a direct correlation between the K+ distribution and the structure of the ice layer. Our results shed light on the local distribution of ions on the air-cleaved mica, solving a long-standing enigma. They also provide a detailed understanding of charge transfer from the ionic domains towards graphene.",
keywords = "METIS-322057, IR-104627",
author = "Pantelis Bampoulis and Kai Sotthewes and Siekman, {Martin Herman} and Zandvliet, {Henricus J.W.} and Bene Poelsema",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1038/srep43451",
language = "English",
volume = "7",
journal = "Scientific reports",
issn = "2045-2322",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",

}

Graphene Visualizes the Ion Distribution on Air-Cleaved mica. / Bampoulis, Pantelis; Sotthewes, Kai; Siekman, Martin Herman; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Poelsema, Bene.

In: Scientific reports, Vol. 7, 43451, 2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Graphene Visualizes the Ion Distribution on Air-Cleaved mica

AU - Bampoulis, Pantelis

AU - Sotthewes, Kai

AU - Siekman, Martin Herman

AU - Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

AU - Poelsema, Bene

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - The distribution of potassium (K+) ions on air-cleaved mica is important in many interfacial phenomena such as crystal growth, self-assembly and charge transfer on mica. However, due to experimental limitations to nondestructively probe single ions and ionic domains, their exact lateral organization is yet unknown. We show, by the use of graphene as an ultra-thin protective coating and scanning probe microscopies, that single potassium ions form ordered structures that are covered by an ice layer. The K+ ions prefer to minimize the number of nearest neighbour K+ ions by forming row-like structures as well as small domains. This trend is a result of repulsive ionic forces between adjacent ions, weakened due to screening by the surrounding water molecules. Using high resolution conductive atomic force microscopy maps, the local conductance of the graphene is measured, revealing a direct correlation between the K+ distribution and the structure of the ice layer. Our results shed light on the local distribution of ions on the air-cleaved mica, solving a long-standing enigma. They also provide a detailed understanding of charge transfer from the ionic domains towards graphene.

AB - The distribution of potassium (K+) ions on air-cleaved mica is important in many interfacial phenomena such as crystal growth, self-assembly and charge transfer on mica. However, due to experimental limitations to nondestructively probe single ions and ionic domains, their exact lateral organization is yet unknown. We show, by the use of graphene as an ultra-thin protective coating and scanning probe microscopies, that single potassium ions form ordered structures that are covered by an ice layer. The K+ ions prefer to minimize the number of nearest neighbour K+ ions by forming row-like structures as well as small domains. This trend is a result of repulsive ionic forces between adjacent ions, weakened due to screening by the surrounding water molecules. Using high resolution conductive atomic force microscopy maps, the local conductance of the graphene is measured, revealing a direct correlation between the K+ distribution and the structure of the ice layer. Our results shed light on the local distribution of ions on the air-cleaved mica, solving a long-standing enigma. They also provide a detailed understanding of charge transfer from the ionic domains towards graphene.

KW - METIS-322057

KW - IR-104627

U2 - 10.1038/srep43451

DO - 10.1038/srep43451

M3 - Article

VL - 7

JO - Scientific reports

JF - Scientific reports

SN - 2045-2322

M1 - 43451

ER -