Green computing: power optimisation of vfi-based real-time multiprocessor dataflow applications

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    Execution time is no longer the only performance metric for computer systems. In fact, a trend is emerging to trade raw performance for energy savings. Techniques like Dynamic Power Management (DPM, switching to low power state) and Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS, throttling processor frequency) help modern systems to reduce their power consumption while adhering to performance requirements. To balance flexibility and design complexity, the concept of Voltage and Frequency Islands (VFIs) was recently introduced for power optimisation. It achieves fine-grained system-level power management, by operating all processors in the same VFI at a common frequency/voltage. This paper presents a novel approach to compute a power management strategy combining DPM and DVFS. In our approach, applications (modelled in full synchronous dataflow, SDF) are mapped on heterogeneous multiprocessor platforms (partitioned in voltage and frequency islands). We compute an energy-optimal schedule, meeting minimal throughput requirements. We demonstrate that the combination of DPM and DVFS provides an energy reduction beyond considering DVFS or DMP separately. Moreover, we show that by clustering processors in VFIs, DPM can be combined with any granularity of DVFS. Our approach uses model checking, by encoding the optimisation problem as a query over priced timed automata. The model-checker UPPAAL Cora extracts a cost minimal trace, representing a power minimal schedule. We illustrate our approach with several case studies on commercially available hardware.
    Original languageUndefined
    Title of host publication18th Euromicro Conference on Digital Systems Design (DSD 2015)
    Place of PublicationUSA
    Number of pages5
    ISBN (Print)978-1-4673-8035-5
    Publication statusPublished - 26 Aug 2015
    Event18th EUROMICRO Conference on Digital System Design, DSD 2015 - Funchal, Portugal
    Duration: 26 Aug 201528 Aug 2015
    Conference number: 18

    Publication series

    PublisherIEEE Computer Society


    Conference18th EUROMICRO Conference on Digital System Design, DSD 2015
    Abbreviated titleDSD


    • Priced Timed Automata
    • Power Management
    • Power Optimisation
    • EWI-26398
    • EC Grant Agreement nr.: FP7/2007-2013
    • EC Grant Agreement nr.: FP7/318490
    • METIS-314993
    • Scheduling
    • Processors
    • Voltage and Frequency Scaling
    • IR-98197
    • MPEG-4 Decoder
    • Heterogeneous

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