Rutherford backscattering (RBS) ion channeling measurements and X-ray diffraction experiments are performed to study the epitaxial nature of as-deposited yttrium on CaF2111 substrates and the effect of hydrogenation on the crystalline quality. The RBS and X-ray results clearly demonstrate the unique epitaxial relation between as-deposited films and the substrate, which is preserved upon loading with hydrogen. X-Ray diffraction reveals: (i) a remarkably large lattice expansion in the direction normal to the substrate, which decreases with increasing film thickness; and (ii) an in-plane compression of the lattice. This peculiar result is related to the difference in thermal expansion coefficients of film and substrate. RBS ion channeling measurements reveal a thickness dependence of the mismatch-induced stresses. As expected, the stresses relax with increasing distance from the film/substrate interface, but surprisingly, even with films as thick as 400 nm considerable dechanneling is still observed at the film surface. Film quality, i.e. the film/substrate mismatch as well as the induced stresses and their relaxation, are discussed in relation to atomic force microscopy (AFM) results on these epitaxial films.
- Switchable mirrors
- Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS)
- Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)
- X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)