Growth characteristics, optical properties, and crystallinity of thermal and plasma-enhanced ALD AlN films

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademic

Abstract

Using real-time in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry and ex-situ atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction, we have investigated the growth characteristics, especially ocusing on the initial growth (nucleation) regime, optical properties and crystalline structure of thin films of aluminum nitride (AlN) grown on Si(111) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in both thermal and plasma-enhanced modes. For the thermal ALD, trimethylaluminum (TMA) and ammonia (NH3) were used as precursors. The self-limiting growth was observed in a very narrow temperature range (i.e. 330−350 °C). The plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) was performed using TMA and either H2/N2 or NH3 plasma in the same temperature range. Highly uniform and conformal AlN films were obtained (Fig. 1). We demonstrate that, for the thermal ALD, the nucleation stage is governed by the formation and laterally-preferential growth of 3D islands, which consequently leads to a fully covered surface at a film thickness of about 2 nm, followed by the linear ALD growth. In contrast, the linear growth starts immediately in PEALD and leads to a significant lower surfaces roughness (Fig. 2). The study on optical properties of the AlN films showed a strong dependence of the refractive index on the ALD modes used (Fig. 3) and film thickness. In the presentation, we will discuss in detail (1) the growth characteristics, including the nucleation regime, closure and linear growth, (2) the evolution of optical constants during the growth; and (3) the crystalline structures of the AlN films grown in different ALD modes.
Original languageUndefined
Title of host publicationProceeding of the 14th International Conference on Atomic Layer Deposition
Place of PublicationJapan
PublisherALD 2014
Pages113-113
Number of pages1
ISBN (Print)not assigned
Publication statusPublished - 18 Jun 2014
Event14th International Conference on Atomic Layer Deposition, ALD 2014 - Hotel Granvia Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan
Duration: 15 Jun 201418 Jun 2014
Conference number: 14
http://www.ald2014.org/

Publication series

Name
PublisherALD 2014

Conference

Conference14th International Conference on Atomic Layer Deposition, ALD 2014
Abbreviated titleALD 2014
CountryJapan
CityKyoto
Period15/06/1418/06/14
Internet address

Keywords

  • EWI-25038
  • METIS-306015
  • IR-91717

Cite this

Van Hao, B., Wiggers, F. B., Aarnink, A. A. I., Nguyen, D. M., de Jong, M. P., Kovalgin, A. Y., & Gupta, A. Y. (2014). Growth characteristics, optical properties, and crystallinity of thermal and plasma-enhanced ALD AlN films. In Proceeding of the 14th International Conference on Atomic Layer Deposition (pp. 113-113). Japan: ALD 2014.
Van Hao, B. ; Wiggers, Frank Bert ; Aarnink, Antonius A.I. ; Nguyen, Duc Minh ; de Jong, Machiel Pieter ; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y. ; Gupta, A.Y. / Growth characteristics, optical properties, and crystallinity of thermal and plasma-enhanced ALD AlN films. Proceeding of the 14th International Conference on Atomic Layer Deposition. Japan : ALD 2014, 2014. pp. 113-113
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title = "Growth characteristics, optical properties, and crystallinity of thermal and plasma-enhanced ALD AlN films",
abstract = "Using real-time in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry and ex-situ atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction, we have investigated the growth characteristics, especially ocusing on the initial growth (nucleation) regime, optical properties and crystalline structure of thin films of aluminum nitride (AlN) grown on Si(111) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in both thermal and plasma-enhanced modes. For the thermal ALD, trimethylaluminum (TMA) and ammonia (NH3) were used as precursors. The self-limiting growth was observed in a very narrow temperature range (i.e. 330−350 °C). The plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) was performed using TMA and either H2/N2 or NH3 plasma in the same temperature range. Highly uniform and conformal AlN films were obtained (Fig. 1). We demonstrate that, for the thermal ALD, the nucleation stage is governed by the formation and laterally-preferential growth of 3D islands, which consequently leads to a fully covered surface at a film thickness of about 2 nm, followed by the linear ALD growth. In contrast, the linear growth starts immediately in PEALD and leads to a significant lower surfaces roughness (Fig. 2). The study on optical properties of the AlN films showed a strong dependence of the refractive index on the ALD modes used (Fig. 3) and film thickness. In the presentation, we will discuss in detail (1) the growth characteristics, including the nucleation regime, closure and linear growth, (2) the evolution of optical constants during the growth; and (3) the crystalline structures of the AlN films grown in different ALD modes.",
keywords = "EWI-25038, METIS-306015, IR-91717",
author = "{Van Hao}, B. and Wiggers, {Frank Bert} and Aarnink, {Antonius A.I.} and Nguyen, {Duc Minh} and {de Jong}, {Machiel Pieter} and Kovalgin, {Alexeij Y.} and A.Y. Gupta",
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year = "2014",
month = "6",
day = "18",
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Van Hao, B, Wiggers, FB, Aarnink, AAI, Nguyen, DM, de Jong, MP, Kovalgin, AY & Gupta, AY 2014, Growth characteristics, optical properties, and crystallinity of thermal and plasma-enhanced ALD AlN films. in Proceeding of the 14th International Conference on Atomic Layer Deposition. ALD 2014, Japan, pp. 113-113, 14th International Conference on Atomic Layer Deposition, ALD 2014, Kyoto, Japan, 15/06/14.

Growth characteristics, optical properties, and crystallinity of thermal and plasma-enhanced ALD AlN films. / Van Hao, B.; Wiggers, Frank Bert; Aarnink, Antonius A.I.; Nguyen, Duc Minh; de Jong, Machiel Pieter; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Gupta, A.Y.

Proceeding of the 14th International Conference on Atomic Layer Deposition. Japan : ALD 2014, 2014. p. 113-113.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademic

TY - GEN

T1 - Growth characteristics, optical properties, and crystallinity of thermal and plasma-enhanced ALD AlN films

AU - Van Hao, B.

AU - Wiggers, Frank Bert

AU - Aarnink, Antonius A.I.

AU - Nguyen, Duc Minh

AU - de Jong, Machiel Pieter

AU - Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.

AU - Gupta, A.Y.

N1 - http://www.ald2014.org/index.html

PY - 2014/6/18

Y1 - 2014/6/18

N2 - Using real-time in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry and ex-situ atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction, we have investigated the growth characteristics, especially ocusing on the initial growth (nucleation) regime, optical properties and crystalline structure of thin films of aluminum nitride (AlN) grown on Si(111) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in both thermal and plasma-enhanced modes. For the thermal ALD, trimethylaluminum (TMA) and ammonia (NH3) were used as precursors. The self-limiting growth was observed in a very narrow temperature range (i.e. 330−350 °C). The plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) was performed using TMA and either H2/N2 or NH3 plasma in the same temperature range. Highly uniform and conformal AlN films were obtained (Fig. 1). We demonstrate that, for the thermal ALD, the nucleation stage is governed by the formation and laterally-preferential growth of 3D islands, which consequently leads to a fully covered surface at a film thickness of about 2 nm, followed by the linear ALD growth. In contrast, the linear growth starts immediately in PEALD and leads to a significant lower surfaces roughness (Fig. 2). The study on optical properties of the AlN films showed a strong dependence of the refractive index on the ALD modes used (Fig. 3) and film thickness. In the presentation, we will discuss in detail (1) the growth characteristics, including the nucleation regime, closure and linear growth, (2) the evolution of optical constants during the growth; and (3) the crystalline structures of the AlN films grown in different ALD modes.

AB - Using real-time in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry and ex-situ atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction, we have investigated the growth characteristics, especially ocusing on the initial growth (nucleation) regime, optical properties and crystalline structure of thin films of aluminum nitride (AlN) grown on Si(111) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in both thermal and plasma-enhanced modes. For the thermal ALD, trimethylaluminum (TMA) and ammonia (NH3) were used as precursors. The self-limiting growth was observed in a very narrow temperature range (i.e. 330−350 °C). The plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) was performed using TMA and either H2/N2 or NH3 plasma in the same temperature range. Highly uniform and conformal AlN films were obtained (Fig. 1). We demonstrate that, for the thermal ALD, the nucleation stage is governed by the formation and laterally-preferential growth of 3D islands, which consequently leads to a fully covered surface at a film thickness of about 2 nm, followed by the linear ALD growth. In contrast, the linear growth starts immediately in PEALD and leads to a significant lower surfaces roughness (Fig. 2). The study on optical properties of the AlN films showed a strong dependence of the refractive index on the ALD modes used (Fig. 3) and film thickness. In the presentation, we will discuss in detail (1) the growth characteristics, including the nucleation regime, closure and linear growth, (2) the evolution of optical constants during the growth; and (3) the crystalline structures of the AlN films grown in different ALD modes.

KW - EWI-25038

KW - METIS-306015

KW - IR-91717

M3 - Conference contribution

SN - not assigned

SP - 113

EP - 113

BT - Proceeding of the 14th International Conference on Atomic Layer Deposition

PB - ALD 2014

CY - Japan

ER -

Van Hao B, Wiggers FB, Aarnink AAI, Nguyen DM, de Jong MP, Kovalgin AY et al. Growth characteristics, optical properties, and crystallinity of thermal and plasma-enhanced ALD AlN films. In Proceeding of the 14th International Conference on Atomic Layer Deposition. Japan: ALD 2014. 2014. p. 113-113