Growth Hormone Receptor Regulation in Cancer and Chronic Diseases: GHR Regulation in Cancer and Chronic Diseases

Ger Strous* (Corresponding Author), Ana Da Silva Almeida, Joyce Putters, Julia Schantl, Magdalena Sedek, Johan slotman, Tobias Nespital, Gerrit Cornelis Hassink, Jan Mol* (Corresponding Author)

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
11 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

The GHR signaling pathway plays important roles in growth, metabolism, cell cycle control, immunity, homeostatic processes, and chemoresistance via both the JAK/STAT and the SRC pathways. Dysregulation of GHR signaling is associated with various diseases and chronic conditions such as acromegaly, cancer, aging, metabolic disease, fibroses, inflammation and autoimmunity. Numerous studies entailing the GHR signaling pathway have been conducted for various cancers. Diverse factors mediate the up- or down-regulation of GHR signaling through post-translational modifications. Of the numerous modifications, ubiquitination and deubiquitination are prominent events. Ubiquitination by E3 ligase attaches ubiquitins to target proteins and induces proteasomal degradation or starts the sequence of events that leads to endocytosis and lysosomal degradation. In this review, we discuss the role of first line effectors that act directly on the GHR at the cell surface including ADAM17, JAK2, SRC family member Lyn, Ubc13/CHIP, proteasome, βTrCP, CK2, STAT5b, and SOCS2. Activity of all, except JAK2, Lyn and STAT5b, counteract GHR signaling. Loss of their function increases the GH-induced signaling in favor of aging and certain chronic diseases, exemplified by increased lung cancer risk in case of a mutation in the SOCS2-GHR interaction site. Insight in their roles in GHR signaling can be applied for cancer and other therapeutic strategies.
Original languageEnglish
Article number597573
Number of pages27
JournalFrontiers in Endocrinology
Volume11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 18 Nov 2020

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