We describe an improved method for coherence domain path length resolved measurements of multiply scattered photons in turbid media. An electro-optic phase modulator sinusoidally modulates the phase in the reference arm of a low coherence fiber optic Mach–Zehnder interferometer, at a high phase modulation angle. For dynamic turbid media this results in Doppler broadened phase modulation interference peaks at the modulation frequency and its multiples. The signal to noise ratio is increased by almost one order or magnitude for large modulation angles and the shape of the spectral peaks resulting from the interference of Doppler shifted sample waves and reference light is not changed. The path length dependent Doppler broadening is compared with the theoretical predictions in the single scattered and diffusive regimes. The experimentally measured optical path lengths are validated with the Monte Carlo technique.
Varghese, B., Rajan, V., van Leeuwen, T., & Steenbergen, W. (2008). High angle phase modulated low coherence interferometry for path length resolved Doppler measurements of multiply scattered light. Optics communications, 281(3), 494-498. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optcom.2007.09.050