High-contrast slab waveguide fabrication in KY(WO4)2 by swift heavy ion irradiation

R. N. Frentrop, V. Tormo-Márquez, J. Olivares, S. M. García-Blanco

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

KY(WO4)2 and other materials of the double tungstate crystal family have been used for decades in active optical applications because of their relatively high refractive index (n2-2.04 @ 1550 nm), high transparency window (0.3-5 μm), excellent gain characteristics when doped with rare-earth ions and reasonably high thermal conductivity (∼3.3 Wm-1K-1). Low-contrast (Δn<0.02) on-chip amplifiers and lasers in this material with good performance have been shown in recent years. Higher refractive index contrast can further improve this performance, and allow easier integration with other integrated optics platforms due to their smaller footprint. Because double tungstate materials cannot be directly grown on many prospected substrates, other methods to fabricate optical waveguides with a thickness of 1-2 μm need to be investigated. In this work, swift heavy ion irradiation has been used to produce a planar waveguide by introducing a buried layer of lower refractive index in the KY(WO4)2 at a depth of ∼2.5 μm. After the irradiation, an annealing step was introduced to reduce the scattering losses. The refractive index profile, effective refractive indices and absorption spectra of the planar waveguides have been investigated for several annealing temperatures, and end-facet free-space coupling of 1550 nm has been used to measure the losses. For a fluence of 3·1014 ion/cm2 of 9 MeV C ions, propagation losses <1.5 dB/cm have been demonstrated at 1550 nm after an annealing step at 350°C.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIntegrated Optics
Subtitle of host publicationDevices, Materials, and Technologies XXII
PublisherSPIE
Volume10535
ISBN (Electronic)9781510615557
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018
EventSPIE Optoelectronics and Photonic Materials and Devices Conference, OPTO 2018 - The Moscone Center, San Francisco, United States
Duration: 28 Jan 20182 Feb 2018

Publication series

NameINTEGRATED OPTICS: DEVICES, MATERIALS, AND TECHNOLOGIES XXII
ISSN (Print)0277-786X

Conference

ConferenceSPIE Optoelectronics and Photonic Materials and Devices Conference, OPTO 2018
Abbreviated titleOPTO
CountryUnited States
CitySan Francisco
Period28/01/182/02/18

Fingerprint

Heavy Ions
Ion bombardment
ion irradiation
Heavy ions
Irradiation
Refractive Index
Waveguide
Refractive index
Fabrication
heavy ions
slabs
Waveguides
refractivity
waveguides
fabrication
Annealing
Planar Waveguides
Planar waveguides
tungstates
Ions

Keywords

  • integrated optics
  • ion irradiation
  • swift heavy ion
  • characterization
  • double tungstate
  • high index contrast

Cite this

Frentrop, R. N., Tormo-Márquez, V., Olivares, J., & García-Blanco, S. M. (2018). High-contrast slab waveguide fabrication in KY(WO4)2 by swift heavy ion irradiation. In Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XXII (Vol. 10535). [105350O] (INTEGRATED OPTICS: DEVICES, MATERIALS, AND TECHNOLOGIES XXII). SPIE. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2290045
Frentrop, R. N. ; Tormo-Márquez, V. ; Olivares, J. ; García-Blanco, S. M. / High-contrast slab waveguide fabrication in KY(WO4)2 by swift heavy ion irradiation. Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XXII. Vol. 10535 SPIE, 2018. (INTEGRATED OPTICS: DEVICES, MATERIALS, AND TECHNOLOGIES XXII).
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Frentrop, RN, Tormo-Márquez, V, Olivares, J & García-Blanco, SM 2018, High-contrast slab waveguide fabrication in KY(WO4)2 by swift heavy ion irradiation. in Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XXII. vol. 10535, 105350O, INTEGRATED OPTICS: DEVICES, MATERIALS, AND TECHNOLOGIES XXII, SPIE, SPIE Optoelectronics and Photonic Materials and Devices Conference, OPTO 2018, San Francisco, United States, 28/01/18. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2290045

High-contrast slab waveguide fabrication in KY(WO4)2 by swift heavy ion irradiation. / Frentrop, R. N.; Tormo-Márquez, V.; Olivares, J.; García-Blanco, S. M.

Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XXII. Vol. 10535 SPIE, 2018. 105350O (INTEGRATED OPTICS: DEVICES, MATERIALS, AND TECHNOLOGIES XXII).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

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AU - Frentrop, R. N.

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AU - Olivares, J.

AU - García-Blanco, S. M.

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N2 - KY(WO4)2 and other materials of the double tungstate crystal family have been used for decades in active optical applications because of their relatively high refractive index (n2-2.04 @ 1550 nm), high transparency window (0.3-5 μm), excellent gain characteristics when doped with rare-earth ions and reasonably high thermal conductivity (∼3.3 Wm-1K-1). Low-contrast (Δn<0.02) on-chip amplifiers and lasers in this material with good performance have been shown in recent years. Higher refractive index contrast can further improve this performance, and allow easier integration with other integrated optics platforms due to their smaller footprint. Because double tungstate materials cannot be directly grown on many prospected substrates, other methods to fabricate optical waveguides with a thickness of 1-2 μm need to be investigated. In this work, swift heavy ion irradiation has been used to produce a planar waveguide by introducing a buried layer of lower refractive index in the KY(WO4)2 at a depth of ∼2.5 μm. After the irradiation, an annealing step was introduced to reduce the scattering losses. The refractive index profile, effective refractive indices and absorption spectra of the planar waveguides have been investigated for several annealing temperatures, and end-facet free-space coupling of 1550 nm has been used to measure the losses. For a fluence of 3·1014 ion/cm2 of 9 MeV C ions, propagation losses <1.5 dB/cm have been demonstrated at 1550 nm after an annealing step at 350°C.

AB - KY(WO4)2 and other materials of the double tungstate crystal family have been used for decades in active optical applications because of their relatively high refractive index (n2-2.04 @ 1550 nm), high transparency window (0.3-5 μm), excellent gain characteristics when doped with rare-earth ions and reasonably high thermal conductivity (∼3.3 Wm-1K-1). Low-contrast (Δn<0.02) on-chip amplifiers and lasers in this material with good performance have been shown in recent years. Higher refractive index contrast can further improve this performance, and allow easier integration with other integrated optics platforms due to their smaller footprint. Because double tungstate materials cannot be directly grown on many prospected substrates, other methods to fabricate optical waveguides with a thickness of 1-2 μm need to be investigated. In this work, swift heavy ion irradiation has been used to produce a planar waveguide by introducing a buried layer of lower refractive index in the KY(WO4)2 at a depth of ∼2.5 μm. After the irradiation, an annealing step was introduced to reduce the scattering losses. The refractive index profile, effective refractive indices and absorption spectra of the planar waveguides have been investigated for several annealing temperatures, and end-facet free-space coupling of 1550 nm has been used to measure the losses. For a fluence of 3·1014 ion/cm2 of 9 MeV C ions, propagation losses <1.5 dB/cm have been demonstrated at 1550 nm after an annealing step at 350°C.

KW - integrated optics

KW - ion irradiation

KW - swift heavy ion

KW - characterization

KW - double tungstate

KW - high index contrast

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BT - Integrated Optics

PB - SPIE

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Frentrop RN, Tormo-Márquez V, Olivares J, García-Blanco SM. High-contrast slab waveguide fabrication in KY(WO4)2 by swift heavy ion irradiation. In Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XXII. Vol. 10535. SPIE. 2018. 105350O. (INTEGRATED OPTICS: DEVICES, MATERIALS, AND TECHNOLOGIES XXII). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2290045