High-efficiency silicon photodiode detector for sub-keV electron microscopy

Agata Sakic, Gerard van Veen, Kees Kooijman, Patrick Vogelsang, Tom L.M. Scholtes, Wiebe B. de Boer, Jaber Derakhshandeh, Wim H.A. Wien, Silvana Milosavljevic, Lis K. Nanver

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A silicon photodiode detector is presented for use in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Enhanced imaging capabilities are achieved for sub-keV electron energy values by employing a pure boron (PureB) layer photodiode technology to deposit nanometer-thin photosensitive anodes. As a result, imaging using backscattered electrons is demonstrated for 50-eV electron landing energy values. The detector is built up of several closely packed photodiodes, and to obtain high scanning speed, each photodiode is engineered with low series resistance and low capacitance values. The low capacitance (< 3 pF/mm 2) is facilitated by thick, almost intrinsically-doped epitaxial layers grown to achieve the necessarily wide depletion regions. For the low series resistance, diode metallization has been patterned into a conductive grid directly on top of the nanometer-thin PureB-layer front-entrance window. Finally, a through-wafer aperture in the middle of the detector is micromachined for flexible positioning in the SEM system.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6261542
Pages (from-to)2707-2714
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE transactions on electron devices
Volume59
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Aug 2012
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Silicon
Photodiodes
Electron microscopy
Detectors
Boron
Electrons
Capacitance
Imaging techniques
Scanning electron microscopy
Epitaxial layers
Metallizing
Landing
Anodes
Diodes
Deposits
Scanning

Keywords

  • Backscattered electrons (BSEs)
  • Boron layer
  • Electron detector
  • Low-energy electrons
  • Silicon epitaxy
  • Silicon photodiode

Cite this

Sakic, A., van Veen, G., Kooijman, K., Vogelsang, P., Scholtes, T. L. M., de Boer, W. B., ... Nanver, L. K. (2012). High-efficiency silicon photodiode detector for sub-keV electron microscopy. IEEE transactions on electron devices, 59(10), 2707-2714. [6261542]. https://doi.org/10.1109/TED.2012.2207960
Sakic, Agata ; van Veen, Gerard ; Kooijman, Kees ; Vogelsang, Patrick ; Scholtes, Tom L.M. ; de Boer, Wiebe B. ; Derakhshandeh, Jaber ; Wien, Wim H.A. ; Milosavljevic, Silvana ; Nanver, Lis K. / High-efficiency silicon photodiode detector for sub-keV electron microscopy. In: IEEE transactions on electron devices. 2012 ; Vol. 59, No. 10. pp. 2707-2714.
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abstract = "A silicon photodiode detector is presented for use in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Enhanced imaging capabilities are achieved for sub-keV electron energy values by employing a pure boron (PureB) layer photodiode technology to deposit nanometer-thin photosensitive anodes. As a result, imaging using backscattered electrons is demonstrated for 50-eV electron landing energy values. The detector is built up of several closely packed photodiodes, and to obtain high scanning speed, each photodiode is engineered with low series resistance and low capacitance values. The low capacitance (< 3 pF/mm 2) is facilitated by thick, almost intrinsically-doped epitaxial layers grown to achieve the necessarily wide depletion regions. For the low series resistance, diode metallization has been patterned into a conductive grid directly on top of the nanometer-thin PureB-layer front-entrance window. Finally, a through-wafer aperture in the middle of the detector is micromachined for flexible positioning in the SEM system.",
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Sakic, A, van Veen, G, Kooijman, K, Vogelsang, P, Scholtes, TLM, de Boer, WB, Derakhshandeh, J, Wien, WHA, Milosavljevic, S & Nanver, LK 2012, 'High-efficiency silicon photodiode detector for sub-keV electron microscopy' IEEE transactions on electron devices, vol. 59, no. 10, 6261542, pp. 2707-2714. https://doi.org/10.1109/TED.2012.2207960

High-efficiency silicon photodiode detector for sub-keV electron microscopy. / Sakic, Agata; van Veen, Gerard; Kooijman, Kees; Vogelsang, Patrick; Scholtes, Tom L.M.; de Boer, Wiebe B.; Derakhshandeh, Jaber; Wien, Wim H.A.; Milosavljevic, Silvana; Nanver, Lis K.

In: IEEE transactions on electron devices, Vol. 59, No. 10, 6261542, 15.08.2012, p. 2707-2714.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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T1 - High-efficiency silicon photodiode detector for sub-keV electron microscopy

AU - Sakic, Agata

AU - van Veen, Gerard

AU - Kooijman, Kees

AU - Vogelsang, Patrick

AU - Scholtes, Tom L.M.

AU - de Boer, Wiebe B.

AU - Derakhshandeh, Jaber

AU - Wien, Wim H.A.

AU - Milosavljevic, Silvana

AU - Nanver, Lis K.

PY - 2012/8/15

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N2 - A silicon photodiode detector is presented for use in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Enhanced imaging capabilities are achieved for sub-keV electron energy values by employing a pure boron (PureB) layer photodiode technology to deposit nanometer-thin photosensitive anodes. As a result, imaging using backscattered electrons is demonstrated for 50-eV electron landing energy values. The detector is built up of several closely packed photodiodes, and to obtain high scanning speed, each photodiode is engineered with low series resistance and low capacitance values. The low capacitance (< 3 pF/mm 2) is facilitated by thick, almost intrinsically-doped epitaxial layers grown to achieve the necessarily wide depletion regions. For the low series resistance, diode metallization has been patterned into a conductive grid directly on top of the nanometer-thin PureB-layer front-entrance window. Finally, a through-wafer aperture in the middle of the detector is micromachined for flexible positioning in the SEM system.

AB - A silicon photodiode detector is presented for use in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Enhanced imaging capabilities are achieved for sub-keV electron energy values by employing a pure boron (PureB) layer photodiode technology to deposit nanometer-thin photosensitive anodes. As a result, imaging using backscattered electrons is demonstrated for 50-eV electron landing energy values. The detector is built up of several closely packed photodiodes, and to obtain high scanning speed, each photodiode is engineered with low series resistance and low capacitance values. The low capacitance (< 3 pF/mm 2) is facilitated by thick, almost intrinsically-doped epitaxial layers grown to achieve the necessarily wide depletion regions. For the low series resistance, diode metallization has been patterned into a conductive grid directly on top of the nanometer-thin PureB-layer front-entrance window. Finally, a through-wafer aperture in the middle of the detector is micromachined for flexible positioning in the SEM system.

KW - Backscattered electrons (BSEs)

KW - Boron layer

KW - Electron detector

KW - Low-energy electrons

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JO - IEEE transactions on electron devices

JF - IEEE transactions on electron devices

SN - 0018-9383

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Sakic A, van Veen G, Kooijman K, Vogelsang P, Scholtes TLM, de Boer WB et al. High-efficiency silicon photodiode detector for sub-keV electron microscopy. IEEE transactions on electron devices. 2012 Aug 15;59(10):2707-2714. 6261542. https://doi.org/10.1109/TED.2012.2207960