High index contrast potassium double tungstate waveguides towards efficient rare-earth ion amplification on-chip

Mustafa Akin Sefünç, Frans Segerink, Sonia García-Blanco

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Rare-earth ion doped KY(WO4)2 amplifiers are proposed to be a good candidate for many future applications by benefiting from the excellent gain characteristics of rare-earth ions, namely high bit rate amplification (<Tbps) with low noise figure (<5-6 dB). However, KY(WO4)2 optical waveguide amplifiers based on rare-earth ions were conventionally fabricated on layers overgrown onto undopedKY(WO4)2 substrates. Such amplifiers exhibit a refractive index contrast between the doped and undoped layer of typically <0.02, leading to large devices not suited for the high degree of integration required in photonic applications. Furthermore, the large mode diameter in the waveguide core requires high pump input powers to fully invert the material. In this study, we experimentally demonstrate high index contrast waveguides in crystalline KY(WO4)2, compatible with the integration onto passive photonic platforms. Firstly, a layer of KY(WO4)2 is transferred onto a silicon dioxide substrate using bonding with UV curable optical adhesive. A subsequent polishing step permits precise control of the transferred layer thickness, which defines the height of the waveguides. Small-footprint (in the order of few microns) high index contrast waveguides were patterned using focused ion beam milling. When doped with rare-earth ions, for instance, Er3+ or Yb3+, such high contrast waveguides will lead to very efficient amplifiers, in which the active material can be efficiently pumped by a confined mode with very good overlap with the signal mode. Consequently, lower pump power will be required to obtain same amount of gain from the amplifier leading to power efficient devices. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIntegrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XIX
PublisherSPIE
Number of pages6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015
EventSPIE Optoelectronics and Photonic Materials and Devices Conference, OPTO 2015 - The Moscone Center, San Francisco, United States
Duration: 7 Feb 201512 Feb 2015

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE
PublisherSPIE
Volume9365
ISSN (Print)0277-786X

Conference

ConferenceSPIE Optoelectronics and Photonic Materials and Devices Conference, OPTO 2015
Abbreviated titleOPTO
CountryUnited States
CitySan Francisco
Period7/02/1512/02/15

Fingerprint

tungstates
potassium
rare earth elements
amplifiers
chips
waveguides
ions
photonics
pumps
footprints
polishing
optical waveguides
low noise
adhesives
platforms
ion beams
refractivity
silicon dioxide

Keywords

  • heterogeneous integration
  • thinning
  • bonding
  • Potassium double tungstate
  • IR-100745
  • METIS-314348
  • high-contrast waveguide

Cite this

Sefünç, M. A., Segerink, F., & García-Blanco, S. (2015). High index contrast potassium double tungstate waveguides towards efficient rare-earth ion amplification on-chip. In Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XIX [93650P] (Proceedings of SPIE; Vol. 9365). SPIE. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2077086
Sefünç, Mustafa Akin ; Segerink, Frans ; García-Blanco, Sonia. / High index contrast potassium double tungstate waveguides towards efficient rare-earth ion amplification on-chip. Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XIX. SPIE, 2015. (Proceedings of SPIE).
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abstract = "Rare-earth ion doped KY(WO4)2 amplifiers are proposed to be a good candidate for many future applications by benefiting from the excellent gain characteristics of rare-earth ions, namely high bit rate amplification (<Tbps) with low noise figure (<5-6 dB). However, KY(WO4)2 optical waveguide amplifiers based on rare-earth ions were conventionally fabricated on layers overgrown onto undopedKY(WO4)2 substrates. Such amplifiers exhibit a refractive index contrast between the doped and undoped layer of typically <0.02, leading to large devices not suited for the high degree of integration required in photonic applications. Furthermore, the large mode diameter in the waveguide core requires high pump input powers to fully invert the material. In this study, we experimentally demonstrate high index contrast waveguides in crystalline KY(WO4)2, compatible with the integration onto passive photonic platforms. Firstly, a layer of KY(WO4)2 is transferred onto a silicon dioxide substrate using bonding with UV curable optical adhesive. A subsequent polishing step permits precise control of the transferred layer thickness, which defines the height of the waveguides. Small-footprint (in the order of few microns) high index contrast waveguides were patterned using focused ion beam milling. When doped with rare-earth ions, for instance, Er3+ or Yb3+, such high contrast waveguides will lead to very efficient amplifiers, in which the active material can be efficiently pumped by a confined mode with very good overlap with the signal mode. Consequently, lower pump power will be required to obtain same amount of gain from the amplifier leading to power efficient devices. {\circledC} (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.",
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Sefünç, MA, Segerink, F & García-Blanco, S 2015, High index contrast potassium double tungstate waveguides towards efficient rare-earth ion amplification on-chip. in Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XIX., 93650P, Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 9365, SPIE, SPIE Optoelectronics and Photonic Materials and Devices Conference, OPTO 2015, San Francisco, United States, 7/02/15. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2077086

High index contrast potassium double tungstate waveguides towards efficient rare-earth ion amplification on-chip. / Sefünç, Mustafa Akin; Segerink, Frans; García-Blanco, Sonia.

Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XIX. SPIE, 2015. 93650P (Proceedings of SPIE; Vol. 9365).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

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AU - García-Blanco, Sonia

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N2 - Rare-earth ion doped KY(WO4)2 amplifiers are proposed to be a good candidate for many future applications by benefiting from the excellent gain characteristics of rare-earth ions, namely high bit rate amplification (<Tbps) with low noise figure (<5-6 dB). However, KY(WO4)2 optical waveguide amplifiers based on rare-earth ions were conventionally fabricated on layers overgrown onto undopedKY(WO4)2 substrates. Such amplifiers exhibit a refractive index contrast between the doped and undoped layer of typically <0.02, leading to large devices not suited for the high degree of integration required in photonic applications. Furthermore, the large mode diameter in the waveguide core requires high pump input powers to fully invert the material. In this study, we experimentally demonstrate high index contrast waveguides in crystalline KY(WO4)2, compatible with the integration onto passive photonic platforms. Firstly, a layer of KY(WO4)2 is transferred onto a silicon dioxide substrate using bonding with UV curable optical adhesive. A subsequent polishing step permits precise control of the transferred layer thickness, which defines the height of the waveguides. Small-footprint (in the order of few microns) high index contrast waveguides were patterned using focused ion beam milling. When doped with rare-earth ions, for instance, Er3+ or Yb3+, such high contrast waveguides will lead to very efficient amplifiers, in which the active material can be efficiently pumped by a confined mode with very good overlap with the signal mode. Consequently, lower pump power will be required to obtain same amount of gain from the amplifier leading to power efficient devices. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

AB - Rare-earth ion doped KY(WO4)2 amplifiers are proposed to be a good candidate for many future applications by benefiting from the excellent gain characteristics of rare-earth ions, namely high bit rate amplification (<Tbps) with low noise figure (<5-6 dB). However, KY(WO4)2 optical waveguide amplifiers based on rare-earth ions were conventionally fabricated on layers overgrown onto undopedKY(WO4)2 substrates. Such amplifiers exhibit a refractive index contrast between the doped and undoped layer of typically <0.02, leading to large devices not suited for the high degree of integration required in photonic applications. Furthermore, the large mode diameter in the waveguide core requires high pump input powers to fully invert the material. In this study, we experimentally demonstrate high index contrast waveguides in crystalline KY(WO4)2, compatible with the integration onto passive photonic platforms. Firstly, a layer of KY(WO4)2 is transferred onto a silicon dioxide substrate using bonding with UV curable optical adhesive. A subsequent polishing step permits precise control of the transferred layer thickness, which defines the height of the waveguides. Small-footprint (in the order of few microns) high index contrast waveguides were patterned using focused ion beam milling. When doped with rare-earth ions, for instance, Er3+ or Yb3+, such high contrast waveguides will lead to very efficient amplifiers, in which the active material can be efficiently pumped by a confined mode with very good overlap with the signal mode. Consequently, lower pump power will be required to obtain same amount of gain from the amplifier leading to power efficient devices. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

KW - heterogeneous integration

KW - thinning

KW - bonding

KW - Potassium double tungstate

KW - IR-100745

KW - METIS-314348

KW - high-contrast waveguide

U2 - 10.1117/12.2077086

DO - 10.1117/12.2077086

M3 - Conference contribution

T3 - Proceedings of SPIE

BT - Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XIX

PB - SPIE

ER -

Sefünç MA, Segerink F, García-Blanco S. High index contrast potassium double tungstate waveguides towards efficient rare-earth ion amplification on-chip. In Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XIX. SPIE. 2015. 93650P. (Proceedings of SPIE). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2077086