High-Normal Protein Intake Is Not Associated With Faster Renal Function Deterioration in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Analysis in the DIALECT Cohort

Milou M. Oosterwijk*, Dion Groothof, Gerjan Navis, Stephan J.l. Bakker, Gozewijn D. Laverman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

OBJECTIVE
To study the prospective association between dietary protein intake and renal function deterioration in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Prospective analyses were performed in data of 382 patients of the Diabetes and Lifestyle Cohort Twente (DIALECT) study. Dietary protein intake was determined by the Maroni equation from 24-h urinary urea excretion. Renal function deterioration was defined as need for renal replacement therapy or a persistent increase of ‡50% in serum creatinine. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for the association between dietary protein intake and renal function deterioration. Threshold levels represent the dietary protein intake at which there was a significantly increased and reduced hazard of renal function deterioration.
RESULTS
Renal function deterioration occurred in 53 patients (14%), with a median followup duration of 6 (interquartile range 5–9) years. Mean dietary protein intake was 91 ± 27 g/day (1.22 ± 0.33 g/kg ideal body weight/day). Dietary protein intake was inversely associated with renal function deterioration (HR 0.62 [95% CI 0.44–0.90]). Patients with an intake <92 g/day had an increased hazard for renal function deterioration (HR 1.44 [95% CI 1.00–2.06]), while patients with an intake >163 g/day had a decreased hazard for renal function deterioration (HR 0.42 [95% CI 0.18–1.00]). Regarding dietary protein intake per kilogram body weight, patients with an intake <1.08 g/kg/day had an increased hazard for renal function deterioration (HR 1.63 [95% CI 1.00–2.65]).
CONCLUSIONS
In patients with T2D, unrestricted dietary protein intake was not associated with an increased hazard of renal function deterioration. Therefore, substituting carbohydrates with dietary protein is not contraindicated as a part of T2D management, although it may have a positive effect on body weight while minimizing loss of muscle mass.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)35-41
Number of pages7
JournalDiabetes care
Volume45
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2022

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