This study demonstrates the feasibility of additive manufactured poly(ε-caprolactone)/silanized tricalcium phosphate (PCL/TCP(Si)) scaffolds coated with carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA)-gelatin composite for bone tissue engineering. In order to reinforce PCL/TCP scaffolds to match the mechanical properties of cancellous bone, TCP has been modified with 3-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and incorporated into PCL to synthesize a PCL/TCP(Si) composite. The successful modification is confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Additive manufactured PCL/TCP(Si) scaffolds have been fabricated using a screw extrusion system (SES). Compression testing demonstrates that both the compressive modulus and compressive yield strength of the developed PCL/TCP(Si) scaffolds fall within the lower ranges of mechanical properties for cancellous bone, with a compressive modulus and compressive yield strength of 6.0 times and 2.3 times of those of PCL/TCP scaffolds, respectively. To enhance the osteoconductive property of the developed PCL/TCP(Si) scaffolds, a CHA-gelatin composite has been coated onto the scaffolds via a biomimetic co-precipitation process, which is verified by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and XPS. Confocal laser microscopy and SEM images reveal a most uniform distribution of porcine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and cell-sheet accumulation on the CHA-gelatin composite coated PCL/TCP(Si) scaffolds. The proliferation rate of BMSCs on the CHA-gelatin composite coated PCL/TCP(Si) scaffolds is 2.0 and 1.4 times higher compared to PCL/TCP(Si) and CHA coated PCL/TCP(Si) scaffolds, respectively, by day 10. Furthermore, the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses reveal that CHA-gelatin composite coated PCL/TCP(Si) scaffolds stimulate osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs the most compared to the other scaffolds. In vitro results of SEM, confocal microscopy and proliferation rate also show that there is no detrimental effect of GPTMS modification on biocompatibility of the scaffolds.