Highly selective optical-sensing membranes, containing calix[4]arene chromoionophores, for Pb2+ ions

N.J. van der Veen, Ewa Rozniecka, L.A. Woldering, M. Chudy, Michael Chudy, Jurriaan Huskens, F.C.J.M. van Veggel, David Reinhoudt

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30 Citations (Scopus)


Plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) optode membranes containing novel calix[4]arene chromoionophores 1 or 2 and one equivalent of a lipophilic anion respond to Pb2+ ions with high selectivity over alkali, alkaline-earth, and other heavy metal ions. This selectivity stems from the combination of ligand specificity and a unique ion exchange scheme that employs both monovalent metal ions and protons as the exchanged ions. Complexation of Pb2+ ions inside the membrane is accompanied by deprotonation of the chromoionophores, which causes a bathochromic shift of the absorption maximum h-max. The response to Pb2+ ions is modulated by pH and alkali metal ions in a fashion that is consistent with the proposed ion-exchange mechanism. Of all of the other metal ions tested, only Cs+ and Ag+ produce a color change. However, these monovalent metal ions cause hypsochromic shifts of h-max instead of the bathochromic shift caused by Pb2+, because the chromoionophores remain protonated upon complexation.
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)4878-4886
JournalChemistry : a European journal
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 2001


  • Sensors
  • optode membrane
  • lead
  • METIS-202982
  • IR-36760
  • Calixarenes
  • chromoionophore

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