A saddle to saddle-focus homoclinic transition when the stable leading eigenspace is three-dimensional (called the 3DL bifurcation) is analyzed. Here a pair of complex eigenvalues and a real eigenvalue exchange their position relative to the imaginary axis, giving rise to a 3D stable leading eigenspace at the critical parameter values. This transition is different from the standard Belyakov bifurcation, where a double real eigenvalue splits either into a pair of complex-conjugate eigenvalues or two distinct real eigenvalues. In the wild case, we obtain sets of codimension 1 and 2 bifurcation curves and points that asymptotically approach the 3DL bifurcation point and have a structure that differs from that of the standard Belyakov case. We give an example of this bifurcation in a perturbed Lorenz–Stenflo 4D ordinary differential equation model.
- homoclinic bifurcations
- numerical bifurcation analysis