Homogeneity analysis with k sets of variables: An alternating least squares method with optimal scaling features

Eeke van der Burg, Jan de Leeuw, Renée Verdegaal

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Homogeneity analysis, or multiple correspondence analysis, is usually applied tok separate variables. In this paper we apply it to sets of variables by using sums within sets. The resulting technique is called OVERALS. It uses the notion of optimal scaling, with transformations that can be multiple or single. The single transformations consist of three types: nominal, ordinal, and numerical. The corresponding OVERALS computer program minimizes a least squares loss function by using an alternating least squares algorithm. Many existing linear and nonlinear multivariate analysis techniques are shown to be special cases of OVERALS. An application to data from an epidemiological survey is presented.
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)177-197
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1988


  • Transformation
  • Homogeneity analysis
  • alternating least squares
  • optimal scaling
  • correspondence analysis
  • Principal component analysis
  • canonical correlation analysis
  • IR-85960

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