Hosting Industry Centralization and Consolidation

Luciano Zembruzki, Raffaele Sommese, Lisandro Zambenedetti Granville, Arthur Selle Jabocs, Mattijs Jonker, Giovane Moura

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
5 Downloads (Pure)


There have been growing concerns about the concentration and centralization of Internet infrastructure. In this work, we scrutinize the hosting industry on the Internet by using active measurements, covering 19 Top-Level Domains (TLDs). We show how the market is heavily concentrated: 1/3 of the domains are hosted by only 5 hosting providers, all US-based companies. For the country-code TLDs (ccTLDs), however, hosting is primarily done by local, national hosting providers and not by the large American cloud and content providers. We show how shared languages (and borders) shape the hosting market — German hosting companies have a notable presence in Austrian and Swiss markets, given they all share German as official language. While hosting concentration has been relatively high and stable over the past four years, we see that American hosting companies have been continuously increasing their presence in the market related to high traffic, popular domains within ccTLDs — except for Russia, notably.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium 2022
Subtitle of host publicationNetwork and Service Management in the Era of Cloudification, Softwarization and Artificial Intelligence, NOMS 2022
EditorsPal Varga, Lisandro Zambenedetti Granville, Alex Galis, Istvan Godor, Noura Limam, Prosper Chemouil, Jerome Francois, Marc-Oliver Pahl
Number of pages9
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-6654-0601-7
Publication statusPublished - 9 Jun 2022
EventIEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium, NOMS 2022 - Budapest, Hungary
Duration: 25 Apr 202229 Apr 2022


ConferenceIEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium, NOMS 2022
Abbreviated titleNOMS 2022
Internet address


  • 22/4 OA procedure


Dive into the research topics of 'Hosting Industry Centralization and Consolidation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this