How practitioners approach gameplay requirements? An exploration into the context of massive multiplayer online role-playing games

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

    6 Citations (Scopus)
    20 Downloads (Pure)

    Abstract

    Gameplay requirements are central to game development. In the business context of massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMOGs) where game companies' revenues rely on players' monthly subscriptions, gameplay is also recognized as the key to player retention. However, information on what gameplay requirements are and how practitioners `engineer' them in real life is scarce. This exploratory study investigates how practitioners developing MMOGs reason about gameplay requirements and handle them in their projects. 12 practitioners from three leading MMOGs-producing companies were interviewed and their gameplay requirements documents were reviewed. The study's most important findings are that in MMOG projects: (1) gameplay requirements are co-created with players, (2) are perceived and treated by practitioners as sets of choices and consequences, (3) gameplay is endless within a MMOG, and while gameplay requirements do not support any game-end goal, they do support a level-end goal, (4) `paper-prototyping' and play-testing are pivotal to gameplay validation, (5) balancing the elements of the gameplay is an on-going task, perceived as the most difficult and labor-consuming, (6) gameplay happens both in-game and out-of-the game. We conclude with discussion on validity threats to our results and on implications for research and practice.
    Original languageUndefined
    Title of host publication2014 IEEE 22nd International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2014
    EditorsRobyn Lutz
    Place of PublicationUSA
    PublisherIEEE Computer Society
    Pages3-12
    Number of pages10
    ISBN (Print)978-1-4799-3031-9
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 22 Aug 2014
    Event22nd IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2014 - Karlskrona, Sweden
    Duration: 25 Aug 201429 Aug 2014
    http://bth.se/re14

    Publication series

    Name
    PublisherIEEE Computer Society

    Conference

    Conference22nd IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2014
    CountrySweden
    CityKarlskrona
    Period25/08/1429/08/14
    Internet address

    Keywords

    • SCS-Services
    • EWI-25407
    • Play-centric requirements engineering
    • Play-testing
    • Gameplay balancing
    • METIS-309717
    • Empirical Research Method
    • IR-94000
    • Exploratory case study
    • Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games
    • Gameplay design

    Cite this

    Daneva, M. (2014). How practitioners approach gameplay requirements? An exploration into the context of massive multiplayer online role-playing games. In R. Lutz (Ed.), 2014 IEEE 22nd International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2014 (pp. 3-12). USA: IEEE Computer Society. https://doi.org/10.1109/RE.2014.6912242
    Daneva, Maia. / How practitioners approach gameplay requirements? An exploration into the context of massive multiplayer online role-playing games. 2014 IEEE 22nd International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2014. editor / Robyn Lutz. USA : IEEE Computer Society, 2014. pp. 3-12
    @inproceedings{4824ca2880814eb5b45b7954940f11fc,
    title = "How practitioners approach gameplay requirements? An exploration into the context of massive multiplayer online role-playing games",
    abstract = "Gameplay requirements are central to game development. In the business context of massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMOGs) where game companies' revenues rely on players' monthly subscriptions, gameplay is also recognized as the key to player retention. However, information on what gameplay requirements are and how practitioners `engineer' them in real life is scarce. This exploratory study investigates how practitioners developing MMOGs reason about gameplay requirements and handle them in their projects. 12 practitioners from three leading MMOGs-producing companies were interviewed and their gameplay requirements documents were reviewed. The study's most important findings are that in MMOG projects: (1) gameplay requirements are co-created with players, (2) are perceived and treated by practitioners as sets of choices and consequences, (3) gameplay is endless within a MMOG, and while gameplay requirements do not support any game-end goal, they do support a level-end goal, (4) `paper-prototyping' and play-testing are pivotal to gameplay validation, (5) balancing the elements of the gameplay is an on-going task, perceived as the most difficult and labor-consuming, (6) gameplay happens both in-game and out-of-the game. We conclude with discussion on validity threats to our results and on implications for research and practice.",
    keywords = "SCS-Services, EWI-25407, Play-centric requirements engineering, Play-testing, Gameplay balancing, METIS-309717, Empirical Research Method, IR-94000, Exploratory case study, Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games, Gameplay design",
    author = "Maia Daneva",
    note = "10.1109/RE.2014.6912242",
    year = "2014",
    month = "8",
    day = "22",
    doi = "10.1109/RE.2014.6912242",
    language = "Undefined",
    isbn = "978-1-4799-3031-9",
    publisher = "IEEE Computer Society",
    pages = "3--12",
    editor = "Robyn Lutz",
    booktitle = "2014 IEEE 22nd International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2014",
    address = "United States",

    }

    Daneva, M 2014, How practitioners approach gameplay requirements? An exploration into the context of massive multiplayer online role-playing games. in R Lutz (ed.), 2014 IEEE 22nd International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2014. IEEE Computer Society, USA, pp. 3-12, 22nd IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2014, Karlskrona, Sweden, 25/08/14. https://doi.org/10.1109/RE.2014.6912242

    How practitioners approach gameplay requirements? An exploration into the context of massive multiplayer online role-playing games. / Daneva, Maia.

    2014 IEEE 22nd International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2014. ed. / Robyn Lutz. USA : IEEE Computer Society, 2014. p. 3-12.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

    TY - GEN

    T1 - How practitioners approach gameplay requirements? An exploration into the context of massive multiplayer online role-playing games

    AU - Daneva, Maia

    N1 - 10.1109/RE.2014.6912242

    PY - 2014/8/22

    Y1 - 2014/8/22

    N2 - Gameplay requirements are central to game development. In the business context of massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMOGs) where game companies' revenues rely on players' monthly subscriptions, gameplay is also recognized as the key to player retention. However, information on what gameplay requirements are and how practitioners `engineer' them in real life is scarce. This exploratory study investigates how practitioners developing MMOGs reason about gameplay requirements and handle them in their projects. 12 practitioners from three leading MMOGs-producing companies were interviewed and their gameplay requirements documents were reviewed. The study's most important findings are that in MMOG projects: (1) gameplay requirements are co-created with players, (2) are perceived and treated by practitioners as sets of choices and consequences, (3) gameplay is endless within a MMOG, and while gameplay requirements do not support any game-end goal, they do support a level-end goal, (4) `paper-prototyping' and play-testing are pivotal to gameplay validation, (5) balancing the elements of the gameplay is an on-going task, perceived as the most difficult and labor-consuming, (6) gameplay happens both in-game and out-of-the game. We conclude with discussion on validity threats to our results and on implications for research and practice.

    AB - Gameplay requirements are central to game development. In the business context of massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMOGs) where game companies' revenues rely on players' monthly subscriptions, gameplay is also recognized as the key to player retention. However, information on what gameplay requirements are and how practitioners `engineer' them in real life is scarce. This exploratory study investigates how practitioners developing MMOGs reason about gameplay requirements and handle them in their projects. 12 practitioners from three leading MMOGs-producing companies were interviewed and their gameplay requirements documents were reviewed. The study's most important findings are that in MMOG projects: (1) gameplay requirements are co-created with players, (2) are perceived and treated by practitioners as sets of choices and consequences, (3) gameplay is endless within a MMOG, and while gameplay requirements do not support any game-end goal, they do support a level-end goal, (4) `paper-prototyping' and play-testing are pivotal to gameplay validation, (5) balancing the elements of the gameplay is an on-going task, perceived as the most difficult and labor-consuming, (6) gameplay happens both in-game and out-of-the game. We conclude with discussion on validity threats to our results and on implications for research and practice.

    KW - SCS-Services

    KW - EWI-25407

    KW - Play-centric requirements engineering

    KW - Play-testing

    KW - Gameplay balancing

    KW - METIS-309717

    KW - Empirical Research Method

    KW - IR-94000

    KW - Exploratory case study

    KW - Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    KW - Gameplay design

    U2 - 10.1109/RE.2014.6912242

    DO - 10.1109/RE.2014.6912242

    M3 - Conference contribution

    SN - 978-1-4799-3031-9

    SP - 3

    EP - 12

    BT - 2014 IEEE 22nd International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2014

    A2 - Lutz, Robyn

    PB - IEEE Computer Society

    CY - USA

    ER -

    Daneva M. How practitioners approach gameplay requirements? An exploration into the context of massive multiplayer online role-playing games. In Lutz R, editor, 2014 IEEE 22nd International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2014. USA: IEEE Computer Society. 2014. p. 3-12 https://doi.org/10.1109/RE.2014.6912242