How shall we start? The importance of general indices for circular cities in Indonesia

Juli Nurdiana*, Laura Franco-Garcia, Michiel A. Heldeweg

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
41 Downloads (Pure)


The role of the circular economy has attracted increased attention amongst practitioners and policymakers in recent years. It has been broadly developed and applied at different levels (micro, meso and macro) in developed countries. However, to date, the possibility of a circular economy in Indonesia has not been widely explored or discussed by city actors. This gap in research represents an opportunity to investigate options that may foster the adoption of circular economy principles and practices. Which aspects of the circular economy should be of primary concern, considering Indonesia’s current situation? In response to this question, this paper offers a systemic process of lessons learnt as developed from the literature, identifying certain key aspects that could benefit Indonesia. This study mapped important factors and key indicators that have been claimed to have beneficial effects in the application of circular economy principles in cities. The authors developed a protocol to systematize the literature review process to illustrate gaps and to provide and recommend indicators for circular cities. These are equally applicable to the local situation in North Kalimantan, which we selected as a showcase medium-sized city. Empirical data was collected by interviewing different stakeholders to enrich the theoretical set of circular economy indicators. This case study offered the opportunity to gain a more realistic understanding of what circular cities might look like in the Indonesian situation. The findings allowed us to explore and describe the current circular economy city-level discussion. They also provide insight and information for decision-makers and city actors on how to collaborate to develop a framework to advance circular city initiatives.

Original languageEnglish
Article number11168
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 10 Oct 2021


  • Circular city
  • Circular economy
  • Developing country
  • Indicators
  • Indonesia
  • VOS viewer
  • UT-Gold-D


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