Purpose: The effect of heat treatment in combination with X-irradiation was examined with regard to expression of p53, a tumor suppressor gene product, and Hsp70, a heat-shock protein, in association with the occurrence of programmed cell death (apoptosis).
Materials and methods: Three hematopoietic cell lines (HSB2, HL60 and Kasumi-1), which differ in p53 status, were exposed to 42.5°C during one hour and/or X-radiation (total dose 8 Gy). After exposure, both mRNA and protein expression levels of Hsp70 and p53 were investigated by real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and Western blotting. Apoptosis was simultaneously analyzed by observation of cell morphology as well as flowcytometric determination of Annexin V binding to phosphatidylserine and propidium iodide exclusion.
Results: Both HL60 and HSB2 cell lines with a low p53 status and a quick response to heat treatment with Hsp70 over-expression are less susceptible to heat-induced apoptosis compared to Kasumi-1 cells with wild-type p53 protein and no Hsp70 response. The combination of first applying X-irradiation followed by heat treatment resulted in the most effective induction of apoptosis due to impairment of the Hsp70 response in all three cell lines.
Conclusion: These results indicate that the Hsp70 response and p53 status mediate the susceptibility of hematopoietic cells to undergo heat-induced apoptosis. Therefore, these parameters can be used as markers to predict the effectiveness of hyperthermia in cancer treatment.
- Heat shock proteins
- Heat treatment