A novel technique to sample particle velocity distributions and collision characteristics from dynamic discrete particle simulations of intrinsically unsteady, non-homogeneous systems, such as those encountered in dense gas-fluidised beds, is presented. The results are compared to the isotropic Maxwellian particle velocity distribution and the impact velocity distribution that constitute the zeroth-order Enskog approximation for the kinetic theory of granular flow. Excellent agreement with the kinetic theory is obtained for elastic particles. The individual particle velocity distribution function is isotropic and Maxwellian. A good fit of the collision velocity distribution and frequency is obtained, using the radial distribution function proposed by Carnahan and Starling (J. Chem. Phys. 51 (1969) 635). However, for inelastic and rough particles an anisotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution is obtained. It is concluded that the formation of dense particle clusters disturbs spatial homogeneity and results in collisional anisotropy. Analysis of the impact velocity shows that, in dense gas-fluidised beds, not all impact angles are of equal likelihood. The observed anisotropy becomes more pronounced with increasing degree of inelasticity of the particles.
Goldschmidt, M. J. V., Beetstra, R., & Kuipers, J. A. M. (2002). Hydrodynamic modelling of dense gas-fluidised beds: comparison of the kinetic theory of granular flow with 3D hard-sphere discrete particle simulations. Chemical engineering science, 57, 2059-2075. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2509(02)00082-9