Hydrophobic Ice Confined between Graphene and MoS2

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

69 Citations (Scopus)
50 Downloads (Pure)


The structure and nature of water confined between hydrophobic molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and graphene (Gr) are investigated at room temperature by means of atomic force microscopy. We find the formation of two-dimensional (2D) crystalline ice layers. In contrast to the hexagonal ice “bilayers” of bulk ice, these 2D crystalline ice phases consist of two planar hexagonal layers. Additional water condensation leads to either lateral expansion of the ice layers or to the formation of three-dimensional water droplets on top or at the edges of the two-layer ice, indicating that water does not wet these planar ice films. The results presented here are in line with a recent theory suggesting that water confined between hydrophobic walls forms 2D crystalline two-layer ice with a nontetrahedral geometry and intrahydrogen bonding. The lack of dangling bonds on either surface of the ice film gives rise to a hydrophobic character. The unusual geometry of these ice films is of great potential importance in biological systems with water in direct contact with hydrophobic surfaces.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)27079-27084
JournalThe Journal of physical chemistry C
Issue number47
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • 2023 OA procedure


Dive into the research topics of 'Hydrophobic Ice Confined between Graphene and MoS2'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this