Hydrothermal co-liquefaction of mixed (wet and dry) biomass residue streams would greatly enhance the viability and scale up potential of the technology as platform in bioenergy and biorefinery applications. This study aims to identify possible interaction effects between three different feeds (protein-rich microalgae, lignocellulosic wood, and carbohydrate-rich sugar beet pulp) and to broaden the data set for evaluating this concept. Co-liquefaction was evaluated at 250 and 350 °C at 10 min of holding time, using 10 wt%(in water) binary mixtures (1:1 wt basis) and a (1:1:1 wt basis) ternary mixture. Results show that interaction during co-liquefaction does play a role and especially reduced the amount of biocrude produced. The biocrude yields obtained are around 15 and 40% below the estimated values for binary and ternary mixtures, on basis of linear averaging the results for the single feeds. For mixtures including algal biomass, a more than proportional nitrogen content and fraction of high molecular mass components was found in the biocrude. For the predictability of biocrude yield and composition in case of biomass mixtures, more work is needed to unravel these interactions.
- Hydrothermal liquefaction