Identifying the interrelations between subjective walkability factors and walking behaviour: A case study in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Abdullh Banger*, Anna Grigolon, Mark Brussel, Karin Pfeffer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Promoting pedestrian-friendly environments has become a subject of great interest worldwide, as it crosses a wide range of scientific fields. Numerous factors have been proposed to measure the level of walkability, but no consensus has been reached on the factors to consider when measuring walkability and the effects of these factors on walking behaviour. Thus, this study aimed to identify objective and subjective walkability factors and their relation to current walking behaviour. The findings were expected to contribute to the design and planning of walkable cities and neighbourhoods. The study designed a theoretical framework stemming from social psychology and urban transport geography to elucidate the influence of walkability factors on walking behaviour. Based on this framework, a survey was conducted among 556 participants. Results of the multivariate correlation analyses and binary logistic regression revealed views that differed from those reported in the literature for other contexts. The comparative analysis based on individuals’ characteristics and travel purposes did not detect any strong variation in walking behaviour. Other results were consistent with previous findings on issues of the hierarchy of walking needs. People’s decision to walk in the selected region was not necessarily determined only by the current condition of the physical built environment. Among all the factors studied, factors concerning accessibility, safety in terms of traffic, and comfort were found to be important for determining walking behaviour. Future studies should enhance walkability measurements by examining the interrelations between subjective walkability factors and the physical built environment.
Original languageEnglish
Article number101025
Pages (from-to)101025
Number of pages16
JournalTransportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives
Early online date8 Feb 2024
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • UT-Hybrid-D
  • Walking behaviour
  • Built environment
  • Walkability
  • Theory of Planned Behaviour


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