Identifying Women at High Risk of 90 Day Death after Elective Open Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair: A Multicentre Case Control Study

G.J. Boer, J.W. Klunder, J.H. Lardenoye, study group collaborators

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Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for 90 day death after elective open surgical repair (OSR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in women.

Methods: This was a multicentre case control study. The nationwide Dutch Surgical Aneurysm Audit registry (2013–2019) was solely used to identify women who underwent elective OSR as eligible patients. Data for this study were subsequently collected from the patients’ medical files. Women with AAA were included and those who died (cases) were compared with those who survived (controls) 90 days after surgery. Inflammatory, mycotic, or symptomatic or ruptured AAA were excluded. The association between pre- and peri-operative risk factors and death was assessed by logistic regression analysis in the whole sample and after matching cases to controls of the same age at the time of repair. Mesenteric artery patency was also assessed on pre-operative computed tomography and used in the analysis.

Results: In total, 266 patients (30 cases and 236 controls) from 21 hospitals were included. Cases were older (median [interquartile range; IQR] 75 years [71, 78.3] vs. 71 years [66, 77]; p =.002) and more often had symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (14/29 [48%] vs. 49/227 [22%]; p =.002). Intra-operative blood loss (median [IQR] 1.6 L [1.1, 3.0] vs. 1.2 L [0.7, 1.8]), acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (10/30 [33%] vs. 8/236 [3%]), renal failure (17/30 [57%] vs. 33/236 [14%]), and bowel ischaemia (BI) (17/29 [59%] vs. 12/236 [5%]) were more prevalent among cases. Older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03–1.19) and PAD (OR 3.91, 95% CI 1.57–9.74) were associated with death. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that, after adjustment for age, AMI (OR 9.34, 95% CI 1.66–52.4) and BI (OR 35.6, 95% CI 3.41–370) were associated with death. Superior mesenteric artery stenosis of >70% had a clinically relevant association with BI (OR 5.23, 95% CI 1.43–19.13; p =.012).

Conclusion: Age, symptomatic PAD, AMI, and BI were risk factors for death after elective OSR in women. The association between a >70% SMA stenosis and BI may call for action in selected cases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17-27
Number of pages11
JournalEJVES Vascular Forum
Volume57
Early online date9 Nov 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Keywords

  • Abdominal aortic aneurysm
  • Mortality
  • Risk factors
  • Surgery
  • Women

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