Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of technetium-99m-labeled polyethylene glycol-coated liposomes (99mTc-PEG liposomes) and technetium- 99m-labeled nonspecific human immunoglobulin G (99mTc-HYNIC IgG) for the scintigraphic detection of experimental intraabdominal abscesses in comparison with that of a standard agent, gallium-67 citrate. Background: Scintigraphic imaging techniques can be very useful for the rapid and accurate localization of intraabdominal abscesses. Two newly developed radiolabeled agents, 99mTc-PEG liposomes and 99mTc-HYNIC IgG, have shown to be excellent agents for imaging experimental focal infection, but have not yet been studied in the detection of abdominal abscesses. Methods: Intraabdominal abscesses were induced in 42 rats using the cecal ligation and puncture technique. Seven days later, randomized groups of rats received 99mTc-PEG liposomes, 99mTc-HYNIC IgG, or 67Ga citrate intravenously. The rats were imaged up to 24 hours after the injection. The biodistribution of the radiolabel was determined by counting dissected tissues ex vivo. Macroscopic intraabdominal abnormalities and focal uptake on the images were independently scored on a semiquantitative scale. Results: 99mTc-PEG liposomes provided the earliest scintigraphic visualization of the abscess (as soon as 2 hours after the injection vs. 4 hours for the other two agents). Liposomes, IgG, and gallium all showed similarly high absolute uptake in the abscess. Focal uptake of liposomes and gallium correlated best with the extent of the macroscopic abnormalities. Conclusions: 99mTc-PEG liposomes and 99mTc-HYNIC IgG performed at least as well as the standard agent, 67Ga citrate, in the detection of experimental intraabdominal abscesses, with obvious advantages such as lower radiation exposure and more favorable physical properties. Of the two technetium agents, the liposomes seemed to be superior, providing the earliest diagnostic image and the best correlation with the inflammatory abnormalities. In addition, the preferential localization of radiolabeled PEG liposomes holds promise for targeted delivery of liposome-encapsulated drugs.