Immersion precipitation route towards high performance thick and flexible electrodes for Li-ion batteries

Peter Paul R.M.L. Harks, Carla B. Robledo, Chandramohan George, Chao Wang, Thomas van Dijk, Leon Sturkenboom, Erik D.W. Roesink, Fokko M. Mulder*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Enabling the transition to renewable power sources requires further optimization of batteries in terms of energy/power density and cost-effectiveness. Increasing the practical thickness of Li ion battery electrodes not only can improve energy density on cell level but reduces manufacturing cost. However, thick electrodes exhibit sluggish charge-transport kinetics and are mechanically less stable, typically resulting in substandard battery performance compared to the current commercial standards (~50 μm). Here we disclose a novel method based on immersion precipitation by employing a non-solvent to solidify the battery binder, instead of solvent evaporation. This method allows for the fabrication of thick and suitable density electrodes (>100 μm with ultra-high mass loading) offering excellent electrochemical performance and mechanical stability. Using commercial electrode active materials at a remarkable mass-loading of 24 mg cm−2, the electrodes processed via immersion method are shown to deliver 3.5 mAh cm−2 at a rate of 2C and operate at rates up to 10C. As additional figure of merit, this method produces electrodes that are both stand-alone and highly flexible, which have been evaluated in flexible full-cells. Furthermore, via immersion precipitation the commonly used more toxic N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone can be supplanted by environmentally benign dimethyl sulfoxide as solvent for processing electrode layers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number227200
JournalJournal of power sources
Publication statusPublished - 30 Nov 2019


  • Batteries
  • Electrodes
  • Flexible batteries
  • Immersion precipitation
  • Phase inversion

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