Impact cratering in sand: Comparing solid and liquid intruders

Rianne de Jong, Song-Chuan Zhao*, Diana Garcia-Gonzalez, Gijs Verduijn, Devaraj van der Meer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
102 Downloads (Pure)


How does the impact of a deformable droplet on a granular bed differ from that caused by a solid impactor of similar size and density? Here, we experimentally study this question and focus on the effect of intruder deformability on the crater shape. For comparable impact energies, we show that the crater diameter is larger for droplets than for solid intruders but that the impact of the latter results in deeper craters. Interestingly, for initially dense beds of packing fractions larger than 0.58, we find that the resultant excavated crater volume is independent of the intruder deformability, suggesting an impactor-independent dissipation mechanism within the sand for these dense beds.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)120-125
Number of pages6
JournalSoft matter
Issue number1
Early online date30 Oct 2020
Publication statusPublished - 7 Jan 2021


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