Purpose Gene-expression profiles increasingly are used in addition to conventional prognostic factors to guide adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) decisions. The Dutch guideline suggests use of validated gene-expression profiles in patients with estrogen receptor (ER) –positive, early-stage breast cancer without overt lymph node metastases. We aimed to assess the impact of a 70-gene signature (70-GS) test on CT decisions in patients with ER-positive, early-stage breast cancer. Patients and Methods In a prospective, observational, multicenter study in patients younger than 70 years old who had undergone surgery for ER-positive, early-stage breast cancer, physicians were asked whether they intended to administer adjuvant CT before deployment of the 70-GS test and after the test result was available. Results Between October 1, 2013, and December 31, 2015, 660 patients, treated in 33 hospitals, were enrolled. Fifty-one percent of patients had pT1cN0, BRII, HER2-Neu-negative breast cancer. On the basis of conventional clinicopathological characteristics, physicians recommended CT in 270 (41%) of the 660 patients and recommended withholding CT in 107 (16%) of the 660 patients. For the remaining 43% of patients, the physicians were unsure and unable to give advice before 70-GS testing. In patients for whom CT was initially recommended or not recommended, 56% and 59%, respectively, were assigned to a low-risk profile by the 70-GS (k, 0.02; 95% CI, -0.08 to 0.11). After disclosure of the 70-GS test result, the preliminary advice was changed in 51% of patients who received a recommendation before testing; the definitive CT recommendation of the physician was in line with the 70-GS result in 96% of patients. Conclusion In this prospective, multicenter study in a selection of patients with ER-positive, early-stage breast cancer, 70-GS use changed the physician-intended recommendation to administer CT in half of the patients.