Ice particle impact onto a cold dry rigid substrate leads to particle deformation and breakup. If the impact velocity is high enough, the deformation is governed mainly by inertial and plastic stresses. Particle deformation may lead to the development of multiple cracks and the formation of a fragmented particle zone in the vicinity of the target surface. Moreover, a small solid residual ice cone, formed from fine particle fragments, remains attached to the substrate. In the present study the normal impact of nearly spherical ice particles, their deformation and fragmentation are observed using a high-speed video system. The size and mass of the residual ice cone are measured for impact velocities ranging from 11.2 ms-1 to 73.2 ms-1 and initial particle diameters ranging from 1.89 mm to 4.44 mm. A theoretical model for the ice particle collision and deformation is used to estimate the residual ice cone size. The model is based on a hydrodynamic approach describing particle deformation and is able to predict well the maximum radius of impression and the collision duration. The radius of the impression is used as the main length scale for an empirical model for the geometry of the residual ice cone.
|Journal||Cold Regions Science and Technology|
|Publication status||Published - Feb 2022|
- Hydrodynamic model
- Ice crystal icing
- Ice particle impact
- Particle crushing
- Particle fragmentation