The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of perioperative screening with modified transesophageal echocardiography (A-View method). We compared, in consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgery between 2006 and 2014, 30-day mortality and in-hospital stroke incidence, operated either with perioperative modified TEE screening (intervention group) or only with conventional TEE screening (control group). Of the 8,605 study patients, modified TEE was applied in 1,391 patients (16.2%). Patients in the intervention group were on average older (71 versus 68 years, p<0.001) and more often females (31.0% versus 28.0%, p<0.001) and had a higher predicted mortality (EuroSCORE I: 5.9% versus 4.0%, p<0.001). The observed 30-day mortality was 2.2% and 2.5% in both groups, respectively, with multivariable and propensity-score adjusted relative risks (RRs) of 0.70 (95% CI: 0.50-1.00, p=0.05) and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.45-0.98, p=0.04). In-hospital stroke was 2.9% and 2.1% in both groups, respectively, with adjusted RRs of 1.03 (95% CI: 0.73-1.45) and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.71-1.43). In patients undergoing cardiac surgery, use of perioperative screening for aortic atherosclerosis with modified TEE was associated with lower postoperative mortality, but not stroke, as compared to patients operated on without such screening.