Impact of new X-ray technology on patient dose in pacemaker and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantations

Joris D. van Dijk*, Jan Paul Ottervanger, Peter Paul H.M. Delnoy, Martine C.M. Lagerweij, Siert Knollema, Cornelis H. Slump, Pieter L. Jager

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    11 Citations (Scopus)
    67 Downloads (Pure)


    Purpose: New X-ray technology providing new image processing techniques may reduce radiation exposure. The aim of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure reduction for patients during pacemaker and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation.

    Methods: In this retrospective study, 1185 consecutive patients who had undergone de novo pacemaker or ICD implantation during a 2-year period were included. All implantations in the first year were performed using the reference technology (Allura Xper), whereas in the second year, the new X-ray technology (AlluraClarity) was used. Radiation exposure, expressed as the dose area product (DAP), was compared between the two time periods to determine the radiation exposure reduction for pacemaker and ICD implantations without cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and with CRT. Procedure duration and contrast volume were used as measures to compare complexity and image quality.

    Results: The study population consisted of 591 patients who had undergone an implantation using the reference technology, and 594 patients with the new X-ray technology. The two groups did not differ in age, gender, or body mass index. The DAP decreased with 69 % from 16.4 ± 18.5 to 5.2 ± 6.6 Gy cm2 for the non-CRT implantations (p < 0.001). The DAP decreased with 75 % from 72.1 ± 60.0 to 17.8 ± 17.4 Gy cm2 for the CRT implantations (p < 0.001). Nevertheless, procedure duration and contrast volume did not differ when using the new technology (p = 0.09 and p = 0.20, respectively).

    Conclusions: Introduction of new X-ray technology resulted in a radiation exposure reduction of more than 69 % for patients during pacemaker and ICD implantation while image quality was unaffected.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)105-110
    Number of pages6
    JournalJournal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2017


    • Dose reduction
    • Imaging
    • Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)
    • Pacemaker
    • Radiation dose


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