Impact of Older Age and Comorbidity on Locoregional and Distant Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Large Population‐Based Study

Anna Z. de Boer*, Heleen C. van der Hulst, Nienke A. de Glas, Perla J. Marang-van de Mheen, Sabine Siesling, Linda de Munck, Kelly M. de Ligt, Johanneke E.A. Portielje, Esther Bastiaannet, Gerrit Jan Liefers

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Background.
Studies have demonstrated worse breast cancer‐specific mortality with older age, despite an increasing risk of dying from other causes due to comorbidity (competing mortality). However, findings on the association between older age and recurrence risk are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess incidences of locoregional and distant recurrence by age, taking competing mortality into account.

Materials and Methods.
Patients surgically treated for nonmetastasized breast cancer between 2003 and 2009 were selected from The Netherlands Cancer Registry. Cumulative incidences of recurrence were calculated considering death without distant recurrence as competing event. Fine and Gray analyses were performed to characterize the impact of age (70–74 [reference group], 75–79, and ≥80 years) on recurrence risk.

Results.
A total of 18,419 patients were included. Nine‐year cumulative incidences of locoregional recurrence were 2.5%, 3.1%, and 2.9% in patients aged 70–74, 75–79, and ≥80 years, and 9‐year cumulative incidences of distant recurrence were 10.9%, 15.9%, and 12.7%, respectively. After adjustment for tumor and treatment characteristics, age was not associated with locoregional recurrence risk. For distant recurrence, patients aged 75–79 years remained at higher risk after adjustment for tumor and treatment characteristics (75–79 years subdistribution hazard ratio [sHR], 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11–1.41; ≥80 years sHR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.91–1.17).

Conclusion.
Patients aged 75–79 years had a higher risk of distant recurrence than patients aged 70–74 years, despite the higher competing mortality. Individualizing treatment by using prediction tools that include competing mortality could improve outcome for older patients with breast cancer.

Implications for Practice.
In this population‐based study of 18,419 surgically treated patients aged 70 years or older, patients aged 75–79 years were at higher risk of distant recurrence than were patients aged 70–74 years. This finding suggests that patients in this age category are undertreated. In contrast, it was also demonstrated that the risk of dying without a recurrence strongly increases with age, and patients with a high competing mortality risk are easily overtreated. To identify older patients who may benefit from more treatment, clinicians should therefore take competing mortality risk into account. Prediction tools could facilitate this and thereby improve treatment strategy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e24-e30
Number of pages7
JournalOncologist
Early online date12 Sep 2019
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print/First online - 12 Sep 2019

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Comorbidity
Breast Neoplasms
Recurrence
Mortality
Incidence
Confidence Intervals
Risk Adjustment
Therapeutics
Neoplasms
Netherlands
Registries
Breast

Keywords

  • Breast cancer
  • Competing risk
  • Distant recurrence
  • Geriatric oncology
  • Locoregional recurrence

Cite this

de Boer, A. Z., van der Hulst, H. C., de Glas, N. A., Marang-van de Mheen, P. J., Siesling, S., de Munck, L., ... Liefers, G. J. (2019). Impact of Older Age and Comorbidity on Locoregional and Distant Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Large Population‐Based Study. Oncologist, e24-e30. https://doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2019-0412
de Boer, Anna Z. ; van der Hulst, Heleen C. ; de Glas, Nienke A. ; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J. ; Siesling, Sabine ; de Munck, Linda ; de Ligt, Kelly M. ; Portielje, Johanneke E.A. ; Bastiaannet, Esther ; Liefers, Gerrit Jan. / Impact of Older Age and Comorbidity on Locoregional and Distant Breast Cancer Recurrence : A Large Population‐Based Study. In: Oncologist. 2019 ; pp. e24-e30.
@article{7a85fb70670440148c1a68a986126fde,
title = "Impact of Older Age and Comorbidity on Locoregional and Distant Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Large Population‐Based Study",
abstract = "Background.Studies have demonstrated worse breast cancer‐specific mortality with older age, despite an increasing risk of dying from other causes due to comorbidity (competing mortality). However, findings on the association between older age and recurrence risk are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess incidences of locoregional and distant recurrence by age, taking competing mortality into account.Materials and Methods.Patients surgically treated for nonmetastasized breast cancer between 2003 and 2009 were selected from The Netherlands Cancer Registry. Cumulative incidences of recurrence were calculated considering death without distant recurrence as competing event. Fine and Gray analyses were performed to characterize the impact of age (70–74 [reference group], 75–79, and ≥80 years) on recurrence risk.Results.A total of 18,419 patients were included. Nine‐year cumulative incidences of locoregional recurrence were 2.5{\%}, 3.1{\%}, and 2.9{\%} in patients aged 70–74, 75–79, and ≥80 years, and 9‐year cumulative incidences of distant recurrence were 10.9{\%}, 15.9{\%}, and 12.7{\%}, respectively. After adjustment for tumor and treatment characteristics, age was not associated with locoregional recurrence risk. For distant recurrence, patients aged 75–79 years remained at higher risk after adjustment for tumor and treatment characteristics (75–79 years subdistribution hazard ratio [sHR], 1.25; 95{\%} confidence interval [CI], 1.11–1.41; ≥80 years sHR, 1.03; 95{\%} CI, 0.91–1.17).Conclusion.Patients aged 75–79 years had a higher risk of distant recurrence than patients aged 70–74 years, despite the higher competing mortality. Individualizing treatment by using prediction tools that include competing mortality could improve outcome for older patients with breast cancer.Implications for Practice.In this population‐based study of 18,419 surgically treated patients aged 70 years or older, patients aged 75–79 years were at higher risk of distant recurrence than were patients aged 70–74 years. This finding suggests that patients in this age category are undertreated. In contrast, it was also demonstrated that the risk of dying without a recurrence strongly increases with age, and patients with a high competing mortality risk are easily overtreated. To identify older patients who may benefit from more treatment, clinicians should therefore take competing mortality risk into account. Prediction tools could facilitate this and thereby improve treatment strategy.",
keywords = "Breast cancer, Competing risk, Distant recurrence, Geriatric oncology, Locoregional recurrence",
author = "{de Boer}, {Anna Z.} and {van der Hulst}, {Heleen C.} and {de Glas}, {Nienke A.} and {Marang-van de Mheen}, {Perla J.} and Sabine Siesling and {de Munck}, Linda and {de Ligt}, {Kelly M.} and Portielje, {Johanneke E.A.} and Esther Bastiaannet and Liefers, {Gerrit Jan}",
year = "2019",
month = "9",
day = "12",
doi = "10.1634/theoncologist.2019-0412",
language = "English",
pages = "e24--e30",
journal = "Oncologist",
issn = "1083-7159",
publisher = "AlphaMed Press",

}

de Boer, AZ, van der Hulst, HC, de Glas, NA, Marang-van de Mheen, PJ, Siesling, S, de Munck, L, de Ligt, KM, Portielje, JEA, Bastiaannet, E & Liefers, GJ 2019, 'Impact of Older Age and Comorbidity on Locoregional and Distant Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Large Population‐Based Study', Oncologist, pp. e24-e30. https://doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2019-0412

Impact of Older Age and Comorbidity on Locoregional and Distant Breast Cancer Recurrence : A Large Population‐Based Study. / de Boer, Anna Z.; van der Hulst, Heleen C.; de Glas, Nienke A.; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J.; Siesling, Sabine ; de Munck, Linda; de Ligt, Kelly M.; Portielje, Johanneke E.A.; Bastiaannet, Esther; Liefers, Gerrit Jan.

In: Oncologist, 12.09.2019, p. e24-e30.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Impact of Older Age and Comorbidity on Locoregional and Distant Breast Cancer Recurrence

T2 - A Large Population‐Based Study

AU - de Boer, Anna Z.

AU - van der Hulst, Heleen C.

AU - de Glas, Nienke A.

AU - Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J.

AU - Siesling, Sabine

AU - de Munck, Linda

AU - de Ligt, Kelly M.

AU - Portielje, Johanneke E.A.

AU - Bastiaannet, Esther

AU - Liefers, Gerrit Jan

PY - 2019/9/12

Y1 - 2019/9/12

N2 - Background.Studies have demonstrated worse breast cancer‐specific mortality with older age, despite an increasing risk of dying from other causes due to comorbidity (competing mortality). However, findings on the association between older age and recurrence risk are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess incidences of locoregional and distant recurrence by age, taking competing mortality into account.Materials and Methods.Patients surgically treated for nonmetastasized breast cancer between 2003 and 2009 were selected from The Netherlands Cancer Registry. Cumulative incidences of recurrence were calculated considering death without distant recurrence as competing event. Fine and Gray analyses were performed to characterize the impact of age (70–74 [reference group], 75–79, and ≥80 years) on recurrence risk.Results.A total of 18,419 patients were included. Nine‐year cumulative incidences of locoregional recurrence were 2.5%, 3.1%, and 2.9% in patients aged 70–74, 75–79, and ≥80 years, and 9‐year cumulative incidences of distant recurrence were 10.9%, 15.9%, and 12.7%, respectively. After adjustment for tumor and treatment characteristics, age was not associated with locoregional recurrence risk. For distant recurrence, patients aged 75–79 years remained at higher risk after adjustment for tumor and treatment characteristics (75–79 years subdistribution hazard ratio [sHR], 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11–1.41; ≥80 years sHR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.91–1.17).Conclusion.Patients aged 75–79 years had a higher risk of distant recurrence than patients aged 70–74 years, despite the higher competing mortality. Individualizing treatment by using prediction tools that include competing mortality could improve outcome for older patients with breast cancer.Implications for Practice.In this population‐based study of 18,419 surgically treated patients aged 70 years or older, patients aged 75–79 years were at higher risk of distant recurrence than were patients aged 70–74 years. This finding suggests that patients in this age category are undertreated. In contrast, it was also demonstrated that the risk of dying without a recurrence strongly increases with age, and patients with a high competing mortality risk are easily overtreated. To identify older patients who may benefit from more treatment, clinicians should therefore take competing mortality risk into account. Prediction tools could facilitate this and thereby improve treatment strategy.

AB - Background.Studies have demonstrated worse breast cancer‐specific mortality with older age, despite an increasing risk of dying from other causes due to comorbidity (competing mortality). However, findings on the association between older age and recurrence risk are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess incidences of locoregional and distant recurrence by age, taking competing mortality into account.Materials and Methods.Patients surgically treated for nonmetastasized breast cancer between 2003 and 2009 were selected from The Netherlands Cancer Registry. Cumulative incidences of recurrence were calculated considering death without distant recurrence as competing event. Fine and Gray analyses were performed to characterize the impact of age (70–74 [reference group], 75–79, and ≥80 years) on recurrence risk.Results.A total of 18,419 patients were included. Nine‐year cumulative incidences of locoregional recurrence were 2.5%, 3.1%, and 2.9% in patients aged 70–74, 75–79, and ≥80 years, and 9‐year cumulative incidences of distant recurrence were 10.9%, 15.9%, and 12.7%, respectively. After adjustment for tumor and treatment characteristics, age was not associated with locoregional recurrence risk. For distant recurrence, patients aged 75–79 years remained at higher risk after adjustment for tumor and treatment characteristics (75–79 years subdistribution hazard ratio [sHR], 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11–1.41; ≥80 years sHR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.91–1.17).Conclusion.Patients aged 75–79 years had a higher risk of distant recurrence than patients aged 70–74 years, despite the higher competing mortality. Individualizing treatment by using prediction tools that include competing mortality could improve outcome for older patients with breast cancer.Implications for Practice.In this population‐based study of 18,419 surgically treated patients aged 70 years or older, patients aged 75–79 years were at higher risk of distant recurrence than were patients aged 70–74 years. This finding suggests that patients in this age category are undertreated. In contrast, it was also demonstrated that the risk of dying without a recurrence strongly increases with age, and patients with a high competing mortality risk are easily overtreated. To identify older patients who may benefit from more treatment, clinicians should therefore take competing mortality risk into account. Prediction tools could facilitate this and thereby improve treatment strategy.

KW - Breast cancer

KW - Competing risk

KW - Distant recurrence

KW - Geriatric oncology

KW - Locoregional recurrence

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DO - 10.1634/theoncologist.2019-0412

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SN - 1083-7159

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