Implementing ICT in classroom practice: what else matters besides the ICT infrastructure?

Catalina Lomos*, J. W.(Hans) Luyten, Sabine Tieck

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)
58 Downloads (Pure)


Background: The large-scale International Computer and Information Literacy Study (2018) has an interesting finding concerning Luxembourg teachers. Luxembourg has one of the highest reported level of technology-related resources for teaching and learning, but a relatively lower reported use of ICT in classroom practice. Methods: ICT innovation requires a high initial level of financial investment in technology, and Luxembourg has achieved this since 2015. Once the necessary financial investment in ICT technology has been made, the key question is what else matters to increase the use of ICT in teaching. To identify the relevant factors, we used the “Four in Balance” model, aimed explicitly at monitoring the implementation of ICT in schools. Results: Using data for 420 teachers in Luxembourg, we identify that within such a technology-driven approach to digitalization, teachers’ vision of ICT use in teaching, level of expertise, and the use of digital learning materials in class are significant support factors. Leadership and collaboration, in the form of an explicit vision of setting ICT as a priority for teaching in the school, also prove to be important. Conclusions: Through these findings, we show that the initial investment in school infrastructure for ICT needs to be associated in its implementation with teachers’ ICT-related beliefs, attitudes, and ICT expertise.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1
JournalLarge-Scale Assessments in Education
Issue number1
Early online date13 Jan 2023
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


  • ICILS 2018
  • ICT implementation model
  • ICT resources
  • Nonresponse adjustment
  • Pedagogical use of ICT
  • Teacher ICT self-efficacy
  • Technology-driven approach


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