Improved Conversion Rates in Drug Screening Applications sing Miniaturized Electrochemical Cells with Frit Channels

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    25 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    This paper reports a novel design of a miniaturized three-electrode electrochemical cell, the purpose of which is aimed at generating drug metabolites with a high conversion efficiency. The working electrode and the counter electrode are placed in two separate channels to isolate the reaction products generated at both electrodes. The novel design includes connecting channels between these two electrode channels to provide a uniform distribution of the current density over the entire working electrode. In addition, the effect of ohmic drop is decreased. Moreover, two flow resistors are included to ensure an equal flow of analyte through both electrode channels. Total conversion of fast reacting ions is achieved at flow rates up to at least 8 mu L/min, while the internal chip volume is only 175 nL. Using this electrochemical chip, the metabolism of mitoxantrone is studied by microchip electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. At an oxidation potential of 700 mV, all known metabolites from direct oxidation are observed. The electrochemical chip performs equally well, compared to a commercially available cell, but at a 30-fold lower flow of reagents.
    Original languageUndefined
    Pages (from-to)9176-9183
    Number of pages8
    JournalAnalytical chemistry
    Volume84
    Issue number21
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 6 Nov 2012

    Keywords

    • METIS-293244
    • EWI-22682
    • IR-83528

    Cite this

    @article{fec16b41599b4305929b2ac008ac2d47,
    title = "Improved Conversion Rates in Drug Screening Applications sing Miniaturized Electrochemical Cells with Frit Channels",
    abstract = "This paper reports a novel design of a miniaturized three-electrode electrochemical cell, the purpose of which is aimed at generating drug metabolites with a high conversion efficiency. The working electrode and the counter electrode are placed in two separate channels to isolate the reaction products generated at both electrodes. The novel design includes connecting channels between these two electrode channels to provide a uniform distribution of the current density over the entire working electrode. In addition, the effect of ohmic drop is decreased. Moreover, two flow resistors are included to ensure an equal flow of analyte through both electrode channels. Total conversion of fast reacting ions is achieved at flow rates up to at least 8 mu L/min, while the internal chip volume is only 175 nL. Using this electrochemical chip, the metabolism of mitoxantrone is studied by microchip electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. At an oxidation potential of 700 mV, all known metabolites from direct oxidation are observed. The electrochemical chip performs equally well, compared to a commercially available cell, but at a 30-fold lower flow of reagents.",
    keywords = "METIS-293244, EWI-22682, IR-83528",
    author = "Mathieu Odijk and Wouter Olthuis and {van den Berg}, Albert and L. Qiao and H. Girault",
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    year = "2012",
    month = "11",
    day = "6",
    doi = "10.1021/ac301888g",
    language = "Undefined",
    volume = "84",
    pages = "9176--9183",
    journal = "Analytical chemistry",
    issn = "0003-2700",
    publisher = "American Chemical Society",
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    }

    Improved Conversion Rates in Drug Screening Applications sing Miniaturized Electrochemical Cells with Frit Channels. / Odijk, Mathieu; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert; Qiao, L.; Girault, H.

    In: Analytical chemistry, Vol. 84, No. 21, 06.11.2012, p. 9176-9183.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Improved Conversion Rates in Drug Screening Applications sing Miniaturized Electrochemical Cells with Frit Channels

    AU - Odijk, Mathieu

    AU - Olthuis, Wouter

    AU - van den Berg, Albert

    AU - Qiao, L.

    AU - Girault, H.

    N1 - eemcs-eprint-22682

    PY - 2012/11/6

    Y1 - 2012/11/6

    N2 - This paper reports a novel design of a miniaturized three-electrode electrochemical cell, the purpose of which is aimed at generating drug metabolites with a high conversion efficiency. The working electrode and the counter electrode are placed in two separate channels to isolate the reaction products generated at both electrodes. The novel design includes connecting channels between these two electrode channels to provide a uniform distribution of the current density over the entire working electrode. In addition, the effect of ohmic drop is decreased. Moreover, two flow resistors are included to ensure an equal flow of analyte through both electrode channels. Total conversion of fast reacting ions is achieved at flow rates up to at least 8 mu L/min, while the internal chip volume is only 175 nL. Using this electrochemical chip, the metabolism of mitoxantrone is studied by microchip electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. At an oxidation potential of 700 mV, all known metabolites from direct oxidation are observed. The electrochemical chip performs equally well, compared to a commercially available cell, but at a 30-fold lower flow of reagents.

    AB - This paper reports a novel design of a miniaturized three-electrode electrochemical cell, the purpose of which is aimed at generating drug metabolites with a high conversion efficiency. The working electrode and the counter electrode are placed in two separate channels to isolate the reaction products generated at both electrodes. The novel design includes connecting channels between these two electrode channels to provide a uniform distribution of the current density over the entire working electrode. In addition, the effect of ohmic drop is decreased. Moreover, two flow resistors are included to ensure an equal flow of analyte through both electrode channels. Total conversion of fast reacting ions is achieved at flow rates up to at least 8 mu L/min, while the internal chip volume is only 175 nL. Using this electrochemical chip, the metabolism of mitoxantrone is studied by microchip electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. At an oxidation potential of 700 mV, all known metabolites from direct oxidation are observed. The electrochemical chip performs equally well, compared to a commercially available cell, but at a 30-fold lower flow of reagents.

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    KW - EWI-22682

    KW - IR-83528

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    EP - 9183

    JO - Analytical chemistry

    JF - Analytical chemistry

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