Improved resolution for soft-x-ray monochromatization using lamellar multilayer gratings

R. van der Meer, B. Krishnan, I.V. Kozhevnikov, M.J. de Boer, B. Vratzov, H.M.J. Bastiaens, J. Huskens, W.G. van der Wiel, P.E. Hegeman, G.C.S. Brons, K.-J. Boller, F. Bijkerk

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Lamellar Multilayer Gratings (LMG) offer improved resolution for soft-x-ray (SXR) monochromatization, while maintaining a high reflection efficiency in comparison to conventional multilayer mirrors (MM). We previously used a Coupled-Waves Approach (CWA) to calculate SXR diffraction by LMGs and identified a single-order regime in which the incident wave only excites a single diffraction order. We showed that in this regime the angular width of the zeroth-order diffraction peak simply scales linearly with Γ (lamel-to-period ratio) without loss of peak reflectivity. However, the number of bi-layers must then be increased by a factor of 1/Γ. Optimal LMG resolution and reflectivity is obtained in this single-order regime, requiring grating periods of only a few hundred nm, lamel widths < 100nm and lamel heights > 1μm [1]. For the fabrication of LMGs with these dimensions, we use a novel process based on UV-NanoImprint Lithography (UV-NIL) and Bosch-type Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE). Successful fabrication of LMGs with periods down to 200nm, line widths of 60nm and multilayer stack heights of 1μm is demonstrated. SXR reflectivity measurements were performed on these LMGs at the PTB beamline at the BESSYII synchrotron facility. The measurements demonstrate an improvement in resolution by a factor 3,5 compared to conventional MMs. Further analysis of the SXR reflectivity measurements is currently being performed.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in X-ray/EUV Optics and Components VI
EditorsChristian Morawe, Ali M. Khounsary, Shunji Goto
Place of PublicationBellingham, WA
Number of pages8
ISBN (Print)9780819487490
Publication statusPublished - 22 Aug 2011
EventSPIE Optical Engineering + Applications 2011 - San Diego Marriott Marquis and Marina, San Diego Convention Center, San Diego, United States
Duration: 16 Aug 201125 Aug 2011

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE
PublisherSPIE International
ISSN (Print)0277-786X


ConferenceSPIE Optical Engineering + Applications 2011
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Diego


  • Bragg reflectors
  • Lamellar multilayer grating
  • Soft-X-ray
  • Coupled waves
  • UV-NIL
  • Bosch DRIE


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