Improved Smoothed Analysis of 2-Opt for the Euclidean TSP

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The 2-opt heuristic is a simple local search heuristic for the Travelling Salesperson Problem (TSP). Although it usually performs well in practice, its worst-case running time is poor. Attempts to reconcile this difference have used smoothed analysis, in which adversarial instances are perturbed probabilistically. We are interested in the classical model of smoothed analysis for the Euclidean TSP, in which the perturbations are Gaussian. This model was previously used by Manthey \& Veenstra, who obtained smoothed complexity bounds polynomial in $n$, the dimension $d$, and the perturbation strength $\sigma^{-1}$. However, their analysis only works for $d \geq 4$. The only previous analysis for $d \leq 3$ was performed by Englert, R\"oglin \& V\"ocking, who used a different perturbation model which can be translated to Gaussian perturbations. Their model yields bounds polynomial in $n$ and $\sigma^{-d}$, and super-exponential in $d$. As no direct analysis existed for Gaussian perturbations that yields polynomial bounds for all $d$, we perform this missing analysis. Along the way, we improve all existing smoothed complexity bounds for Euclidean 2-opt.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 30 Nov 2022


  • cs.DS
  • cs.CC
  • math.CO
  • math.PR


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